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20 Cards in this Set

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Chap 24

What is apraxia?
Apraxia is the inability to perform motor activities in the presence of intact motor and sensory systems and normal comprehension.
Chap 24

What is aphasia?
Aphasia is impaired or absent communication by speech, writing, or signs (loss of the capacity for spoken language).
Chap 24

What is Broca's aphasia?
Broca's (motor) aphasia:

1. lesion in frontal lobe, in the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodman 44, 45)

2. good comprehension

3. dysarthric speech (BROca's is BROken speech)

4. poor repetition
Chap 24

What is Wernickes aphasia?
Werneke's (sensory) aphasia:

Lesion in the posterior temporal lobe, in the superior temporal gyrus (Brodman 22)

1. poor comprehension
2. fluent speech
3. quadrantanopia
4. paraphasic errors
5. poor repetition

Wernickes: Wordy but makes no sense.
Chap 24, FA p.359

What does transection of the arcuate fasciculus cause?
Causes: conduction aphasia

1. poor repetition
2. good comprehension
3. fluent speech
Chap 24

What is the function of the arculate fasciculus?
It interconnects Brodmanns area with Wernickes.
Chap 24

What is global aphasia and what causes it?
Global aphasia:
Lesion of the perisylvian area which contains Broca's and Wernickes areas.

Symptoms are both combined.
Chap 24

How do lesions of the basal ganglia cause aphasia?
Basal ganglion diseases may cause aphasia:
1. lesions of the anterior basal ganglia result in nonfluent aphasia.
2. lesions of the posterior basal ganglia result in fluent aphasia
Chap 23

Which cortex is the thinnest?
Which is the thickest?
Thinnest: visual cortex
Thickest: motor cortex
Chap 23

Describe the six layers of the brain:
I: molecular
II: external granular
III: external pyramidal
IV: internal granular (recieves fibers from thalamus and visual cortex/lateral geniculate body)
V: internal pyramidal gives rise to corticobulbar, corticospinal, pyramidal cells of Betz which are found only in the motor cortex (brodmann area 4)
Chap 23

Four things located in the frontal lobe:
1. motor cortex (brodmanns 4)/premotor cortex
2. frontal eye field (destruction causes deviation of the eyes to the ipsilateral side)
3. broca speech area (44,45) in posterior inferior frontal gyrus in the dominant hemisphere
4. prefrontal cortex
Chap 23

Describe findings in a pt with a lesion in the prefrontal cortex:
Prefrontal cortex: deficits in concentration, orientation, abstracting ability, judgement, and problem-solving ability
Chap 23

Describe how a visual image is transformed into a spoken word
The visual image of a word is projected from the visual cortex (area 17) to the visual association cortices (18 and 19) and then to the angular gyrus (39). Further processing occurs in Wernickes speech area (22) where the auditory from of the word is recalled. Through the arcuate fasciculus, this information reaches Broca's speech area (44, 45) where motor speech programs control the vocalization mechanisms of the precentral gyrus.
Chap 23

Anosognosia: condition in which a person who suffers disability due to brain injury seems unaware of or denies the existence of their handicap. This may include unawareness of quite dramatic impairments, such as blindness or paralysis. Caused by destruction of parietal lobe.

Can be in the form of unilateral neglect (often in nondominent side).
Chap 23

The lesion of part of the brain would cause dressing apraxia?
Parietal lobe
Chap 23

7 components of the temporal lobe:
1. primary auditory cortex (41, 42)/associative auditory cortex
2. Wernickes speech area in the dominant hemisphere
3. Meyer's loop
4. Olfactory bulb, tract, primary cortex
5. hippocampal cortex
6. amygdaloid nucleus
7. inferomedial occipitotemporal cortex
Chap 23

Bilateral lesion in the temporal lobe's amygdaloid nucleus?
Kulver-Bucy syndrome: psychic blindness (visual agnosia), hyperphagia, hypersexuality
Chap 23

Bilateral lesions of the hippocampal cortex?
Bilateral lesions result in the inability to consolidate short-term memory into long-term memory. Earlier memories are retrievable.

What do you know about all muscles that end in -glossus?
All muscles with root glossus in their names (EXCEPT PALATOGLOSSUS -vagus) are innervated by the hypoGLOSSAL nerve.

What do you know about all muscles that have the root palat?
ALl muscles with the root palat (except tensor veli palatini -mandibular CNV) are innvervated by vagus nerve.

All for vagus n. except for TENSor palatini who was too TENSE.