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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
towards the center
blindness, especially not involving the eye
absence of pain
loss of sensations
unequal pupil diameters
muscular incoordination
clinical signs prior to an epileptic seizure
What is the Babinski's response sign?
the spreading and flexion of the hindlimb phalnages when the plantar surface of the foot is stimulated or during a crossed extensor reflex. This is an upper motor neuron disease sign.
What is the blood brain barrier?
It is the physiologic barrier preventing diffusion of certain substances, esp. drugs, into the brain.
What is the brain stem? What is it composed of?
It is the connecting region between the spinal cord and the brain.
It is composed of the medula, pons, and midbrain.
What is the calvarium?
It is the dome like dorsal portion of the cranium
What is chorea?
Frequent, jerky but well coordinated muscular movements in the body that are performed involuntarily
What is clonus?
it is the alternating muscular contraction and relaxation in rapid succession when a reflex arc is stimulated. It is an upper motor neuron disease sign.
What is decerebrate?
It is the extensor rigidity resulting from a lesion removing the effects of the cerebrum on the motor system.
What is decussation?
It is the crossing of neural pathways.
What are some infratentorial signs?
1. nystagmus
2. strabismus
3. Circling, head tilt
4. Marked hypermetria
5. marked ataxia
6. Tremor
7. Facial paralysis and other cranial nerve signs
What are some supratentorial signs?
1. Blindness
2. depression
3. Convulsions
4. hypermetria (slight)
5. Ataxia (slight)
6. Behaviour change
7. Circle to side of lesion
8. Polyuria/polydipsia
What are the three major areas of localization?
brain, spinal cord, neuromuscular
What are two general types of neuromuscular disease?
1. Myopathy/junctionopathy
2. Neuropathy
Neuropathy is
a lesion of the peripheral nerve root or ventral horn cell.
What are the signs of Neuropathy?
1. may or may not have muscle fasciculation or pain befores nerves are destroyed.
2. may or may not have hypalgesia/anesthesia of dermatome
3. The muscle innervated by the affected nerve will have lower motor neuron paralysis. This may be diffuse depending on the number of peripheral nerves involved.
What are the signs of Myopathy/ junctionopathy?
1. These are usually diffuse and bilaterally symmetrical, but may be multifocal.
2. weakness or exercise intolerance
3. Stilted gait, quickly fatigued (running out of gas)
4. Stiffness
5. may or may not have muscle atrophy which can cause contraction and may limit movement.
6. Reflexes may be decreased or may be normal.
7. They have normal sensation
8. If there is muscle necrosis, there will be elevated creatinine kinase
Myotonia differs from other myopathies in what signs?
The muscles don't relax therefore there is a stiff, stilted gait, muscle hypertrophy which dimple on percussion.
What are the 4 segments that we break the spinal cord down into?
1. Cervical (C1 - C5)
2. Cervicothoracic (C6 - T2 which contains the brachial plexus)
3. Thoracolumbar (T3 - L3)
4. Lumbosacral (L4 - S3)