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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
consists of the Somatic and autonomic
what are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic and parasympathetic
what do axons do
transmit impulses away from the cell body
waht do dendrites do
recieve impulses
what is the efferent division of PNS
this is the motor output from the CNS
what is Afferent Division
of the PNS
this is the Sensory input into the CNS
what is a synapse
where the neuron joins with other neurons at junctions
what is a neurotransmitter
a chemical either acetylcholine or norepinephrine that crosses the gap between the axon and dendrites
what are meninges
protective membranes that cover the entire CNS
what are dermatomes
areas of the skin innervated by spinal nerves
how many pairs of nerve fibers exit the spinal cord
31
what are the four categories of peripheral nerves
Somatic sensory
Somatic motor
Visceral sensory
Visceral motor
describe somatic sensory
afferent nerves that transmit sensations involved it touch , pressure , pain , temperature and position
describe somatic motor
these efferent fibers carry impulses to the skelstal muscles
Describe Visceral sensory
these afferent tracts transmit sensations from the visceral organs such as a full bladder
Describe Visceral motor
these efferent fibers exit the cns system and branch to supply nerves to the involuntary cardiac muscle and smooth muscle and the organs
what is the hallmark sign of CNS injury
altered mental status
what is a coma
a state in which the patient cannot be aroused even by powerful external stimuli
what are the two mechanisms capable of producing alterations in mental status
Structural lesions ,eg tumers or contusions

Toxic metabolic states, eg
lack of oxygen, diabetic, hepatic failure
what is Peripheral neuropathy
is any malfunction or damage of the peripheral nerve
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
characterized by a period of apnea lasting 10-60sec followed by gradually increasing depth and frequenccy of respirations
Kussmauls respirations
rapid and deep respirations caused by severe metabolic CNS problems
Central neurogenic hyperventilation
caused by a lesion in the CNS
often characterized by rapid, deep, noisy repirations
ataxic respiration
poor respiration due to CNS damage causing ineffective thoracic muscular coordination
Apneustic respirations
characterized by prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiratioin attempts seen in patients with damage to their pons
decorticate posture
associated with a lesion at or above the upper brainstem
(arms and fists are flexed
decerebrate posture
resulting from a lesion in the brainstem (extended extremities and retracted hands)
what does the glascow scale measure
Eye
Verbal
Motor
Describe the point system for the GCS eye opening
Spontaneous is 4
to voice is 3
to pain is 2
None is 1
Describe the GCS for best verbal response
Oriented 5
Confused 4
Inappropriate words 3
Incomprehensible words 2
None 1
Describe the GCS for best motor response
Obeys commands 6
Localizes pain 5
Withdraws to pain 4
Flexion to pain 3
Extension to pain 2
None 1
what is the possible total for the GCS
3-15
what does a scor of 13 - 15 indicate
Minor head injury
What does a glascow score of 9-12 indicate
Moderate head injury
What does a glascow score of =or less than 8 indicate
Sever head injury,
Coma and sever mortality risk
What is cushings triad
Increased blood pressure
decreased pulse
irregular respirations
indication of intracranial pressure
what is the major concern in any emergency including a CNS emergency
A
B
C
what is AEIOU-TIPS
this is a mnemonic device used to remember some of the common causes of altered mental status
What are some of the common causes of altered mental status
AEIOUTIPS
Acidosis, alcohol
Epilepsy
Infection
Overdose
Uremia
Trauma, Tumor , Toxin
Insulin
Psychosis, Poison
Stroke, Seizure
What does chronic alcoholism interfere with the intake and absorption of
Thiamine
What can Thiamine deficiency cause
Wernickes syndrome which characterized by ataxia, eyemuscle weakness and mental derangement including loss of memorey and disorientation
What is Korsakoffs Psychosis
Caused by thiamine deficiency which in cludes muttering , delirium , insomnia , delusions and hallucinations, painful extrmities. may be irreversible.
What are the two kinds of stroke
Ischemic and hemorrhagic
What is tissue plasminogen activator
a fibrinolytic used in the treatment of strokes and heart attacks
What is crucial in improving the outcome for storke patients
getting difinitive treatment within 3 hours of onset
how common are stroke s
they are the 3rd most common cause of death in middle aged and older patients
what is a embolic stroke
it is a solid, liquid or gaseous mass carried to a blood vessel fromm a remote site, they occure suddenly and are characterized by severe headaches
What is a Thrombotic stroke
this is a cerebral thrombus that is caused by plaque build up, symptoms develope gradually and often occures at night
what is a hemorrhagic stroke
this is when a small vessel deep in the head ruptures and the leaking blood may paralyze vital centers
what are the signs and symptoms of a stroke
pupils may be unequal with larger pupil on the side if the hemorrhage and the eyes often will be turned away from the side of the body paralysis, also
Facial drooping
headache
Confusion and agitation
Dysphasia (difficulty in speak
Aphasia (cant speak)
Hemiparesis
Dizziness
coma
vision problems one eye
What is a TIA
this is a temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain usually resolved in 24 hours
What happens when you hyperventilate a stroke patient
it may lower CO2 levels to detrimentally low levels and cause profound cerebral vasoconstriction
What are some of the causes of seizures
Fever, blood suger, head trauma, toxic eclampsia,
Strss, hypoxia, and without a known cause
What does the term epilepsy or epileptic indicate
This indicates that a person has more of a potential for developing a seizure that would not induce them in normal individuals
What is a tonic clonic seizure
called a grand mall seizure it is a generalized motor seizure producing a loss of consciousness
What is an Aura
this is the sensation preceding a a seizure, could be smells, tastes or auditory
What is a seizure
it is a temporary alteration in behavior due to the massive electrical discharge of one or more groups of neurons in the brain
What is a generalized seizure
these are seizures that begin as an electrical discharge ina small area of the brain but spread to invlolve the entire cerebral cotex
What is a partial seizure
seizures that remain confined to a limited portion of the brain causing localized malfunction
what happens during the tonic phase of a seizure
muscle contractions
what is the clonic phase of a seizure
muscle spasms and the jaw remains clenched
What is status epilepticus
A series of two or more generalized seizures
What is a brain abscess
a collection of pus localized in an area of the brain
Degenerative neurological cisorders
a collection of diseases that selectively affect one of more functional systems of the CNS
Alzheimers disease
A degenerative brain disorder, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly
Muscular Dystrophy
Refers to a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscle fibers.
Multiple Sclerosis
refers to an unpredictable disease of the CNS, Involves inflammation of certain nerve cells followed by demyelination or destruction of the Myelin sheath.
dystonias
A group of disorders characterized by muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements
parkinsons Disease
Motor system disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and postural instability
Central Pain Syndrome
condition that results from damage or injury to the brain, brainstem or spinal cord.
bells Palsy
most common form of facial paralysis resulting from inflammatory reaction of the facial nerve
ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
progressive degeneration of specific nerve cells that control voluntary movement
Myoclonus
Temporary twitching or spasm of a muscle or group of muscles
Spina bifida
A neural defect that results from the failure of one or more or the fetal vertebrai to close properly during the first month of pregnancy
Poliomyelitis (polio)
infectious inflammatory viral disease of the CNS
The inner most layer of the meninges.
arachnoid membrane
The type of stroke that occurs at night is
Thrombotic
A brief generalized seizure that usually presents with a 10 to 30 sec loss of conciousness or awareness is a
absence seizure
Most low back pain is
idiopathic