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54 Cards in this Set

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age and sleep
with increasing age , total sleep time and REM decrease
agnosia
the inability to recogonize familiar sensory stimuli
-auditory, visual, tactile
akthesia
an uncomfortable feeling of motor restlessness, not sit still
akinsia
slowness or loss of mvmt (bradykinesia(
-masklike facial expression and emotionless speech
all-or-none law
biological law governing the action potential. Proposes that an action potential will occur when the neuron recieves a mimimal level of stim; . stim not effect
alpha waves
pattern of electrical brain activity assoicated w/ relaxed wakefulness
amygdala
limbic sys substructure
-controls emotions
-including emotions to sensory stim
anhedonia
lack of reaction to pleasure producing stim; can't exp pleasurable sensations
anticholinergic effects
tricyclic side effects
-dry mouth, constipation, uniary retention, blurred vision, nasal congestion
antipsychoptics
drugs to treat + symp of schiz
-aka neuroleptics
-thorazinew, mellaril, haldol
-side effects anticholinergic symps & extrapyramidal effects
aphasia
deficit or inability to use/understand spoken, symbolic, written language
-broca's & wernicke's
apraxia
inability to execute purposeful or organized mvmts despite norm strength & coordination.
-damage to frontal/parietal lobes
ataxia
-slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance
auditory localization
orientation toward direction of sound,
- full ability after 12 mths
autonomic nervous syst
-peripheral NS
-control smooth muscles & glands

sympathetic- energy (fight/flight)

Parasympathetic- restoration & recuperation
barbituates
CNS depressants
-addictive/dangerous
-amytal, penotal
basal ganglia
midbrain structure
-muuscle tone, motor coor, posture
pt of extrapyrmidal motor syst
beta-blockers
reduce beta-andrengic neurons receptivity, which innervate cardiso & resp syst
-anti-anxiety
benzodiapines
anti-anxiety
-Xanax, valium, ativan
Broca's aphasia
slow, labored, nonfluent speech
-damage to broca area
aka expressive aphasia
cerebellum
brain centre
-coor mvmts of dif pts of body
-coord fine motor
conduction aphasia
damage to nerve fibers which connect broca's to wernickes area
-can speak & comprehend but dif repeating what heard
external cues & obesity
eat in response to external cues not internal hunger
extrapyramidal effects
drug effects on the extrapyrmidal effects
-parkinsons (muscle stiffness, shuffling, stooped slurring, masklike face) akathesia (muscle discomfort, restlessnes) dystonia (muscle contractions, unvol mvmts) tardive dyskenesia (slow, invol mvts, face, tongue and jaw
gate-control theory
pain impulses can be blocked by competing impulses
hippocampus
limbic syst
tranfers info fr shortterm to longterm mem
hyperthyroidism
over-sercretion of thyroxin
-speeded metabolism, wgt loss, irritability, nervousness, insomnia
hypothalmus
brain struct- regulates homeostatsis
-motivates drinking, feeding, sex, aggression, maternal beh'r
hypothyroidism
under-secretion of thyroxin
-slowed metabolism, wgt gain. cog impair, depressiom
lateralization of function
R & L hemisphepres seem to control dif function
-mst people L = language dominant; R = visual-spatial
limbic syst
mid and lower brain ctrs
- basic emo and motivational life
-amygadala, septum, hippocampus
long-term potentiation
changes in synpases after high-frequency stim
hippocampal cells
-resp for long-term mem
MAIOs
antidepressants
-impair an monamine oxidase enzyme that degrades norepinephrine.
-nardil
-not taken w/ foods w/ tyramine
medulla
hindbrain
-mediation of vital autonomic activities
-heart rate, BP, resp
Methylphenidate
ritalin
-cns stim
-
parietal lobe
cerebral cortex
-somatosensory cortex
-process sensation of pain, temperature, kinesthesia,
prosopagnosia
not recog familiar faces
Reticular activating syst
RAS
brain area
-maintians waking state, arousal, selective attention
SSRIsq
antidepressants
-prozac, zoloft
+ serotonin levels
- less side eff than tricyclic
temporal lobe
-auditory cortex
-receptive lang, emo, mem
thalmus
cental switching station re sensory info (not olfactory)
-going to cortex
-communication between brain regions
tricyclics
antidepressants
-block re-uptake fo noreinephrine and/or serotonin.
elavil
-results in neurotransmitters at the synapse
Wernickes aphasia
wernickes area in temp lobe
-dif comp speech
-dif in fluency, devoid of meaning
aka fluent/receptive aphasia
somatic nervous system
-peripheral NS
-skeltal muscles and skin receptors
Achethycholine (ACh)
Neurotransmitter
-excitatory; mem/learn
-< = poor vol mvmt, Alzheimers
-inhibiting effect on heart/resp
-mediate sex beh/REM
Cathecholamines
Neurotransmitter
-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
-personality, mood, drives
-< nore = depression
-> dopa , > nore = schiz
- dops; mvmt, Parkinsons
Serotonin
Neurotransmitters
-personality, mood, drive
-< = dep
-anx, aggressionn, sleep, modulation of pain, obesity
Gamma- Amino Butric Acid (GABA)
Neurotransmitter
-inhibitory
-< dep act'y in NS, Huntingtons
Huntingtons Chorea
-<GABA
-dementia
-invol jerky mvts
Glumate
Neurotransmitter
-excitatory in NS
-hippocampus
-mem
> brain damage fr stroke
Brain
3 areas
-hindbrain
-midbrain
-forebrain
Hindbrain
-medulla Oblongata (vitals)
-pons (regs arousal states
-cerebellum (balance, coord mvts, posture)(dam = slur speech, tremors, balance)
Midbrain
-Substantia Nigra (extrapyramidal)
-RAS (sleep, arousal, pain, touch, reflexes)
-basal ganglia
antidepressants
tricyclics = imipramine (tofranil), clomipramine (OCD)(anafranil), amitriptyline (elavil)
-veg dep symps
-panic att, agoraph, obessions

SSRI= fluoetine (prozac), sertraline (zoloft), paroxetine (paxil)
-< side effects, safer, no cog probs

MAOI= phenelzine (nardil), tranycypromine (pranate)
-atypical dep