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9 Cards in this Set

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in general, lesions to the direct pathway result in
hypokinesis because the direct pathway facilitates movement
in general, lesions to the indirect pathway result in
hyperkinesis because the indirect pathway inhibits movement
Hemiballismus can be localize to?
contralateral subthamaic nucleus
What is the cause of Huntington's disease? Affect on pathway? Sxs?
Degeneration of striatal neurons especailly the ENk neurons of the indirect pathway. Loss of indirect pathway function leads to failure to inhibit movement resulting in hyperkinesis. Sxs include involuntary movements (chorea, atheotosis) memory loss and cognitive dysfunction, pyschiatric disturbances
What is the cause of Parkinson's disorder? Affect on Pathway? Result?
Cause=loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc, results in net inhibtion of the thalamus and hypokinesia. Sxs=asymmetrical resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability
What is the "clinical triad" of Parkinson's disease
1. tremor at rest 2. rigidity 3. bradykinesia
How is Parkinson's treated
dopamine replacing medications
What type of surgery could be preformed to treat bradykinesia and rigidity?
These symptoms are the result of over inhibited movement so you want to introduce a lesion into the indirect pathway Pallidotomy can relive the sxs. Additionally, Deep brain stimulation of the STN can inhibit the STN which inhibits the indirect pathway
What type of surgery could be preformed to treat a severe tremor
This is a hyperkinetic disorder that can be treated by inhibiting the direct pathway. Thalamotomy can relive these sxs.