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117 Cards in this Set

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address resource record
A type of DNS data record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name.
alias
A nick for a node's host name. They can be specified in a local host file.
anycast address
A type of address specified in IPv6 that represents a group of interfaces, any one of which (usually the first available of which) can accept a transmission. At this time they are not designed to be assigned to hosts, such as servers or workstations but rather to routers.
APIPA (automatic private IP addressing)
A service available on computers running the Win 98, Me, 2k and XP OS that automatically assigns the computers network interface address from the range of 169.254.0.0 to 169.255.255.255 if an IP address hasn't been assigned to that interface.
AppleTalk network number
A unique 16-bit number that identifies the network to which an AppleTalk node is connected.
AppleTalk
The protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers. Originally designed to support P2P networking among Macintoshes, it can now be routed between network segments and integrated with NetWare or Microsoft based networks.
AppleTalk node ID
A unique 8-bit or 16-bit number that identifies a computer on an AppleTalk network.
AppleTalk zone
A logically defined group of computers on an AppleTalk network.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. ARP obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or a node, and then creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP (logical) address.
ARP table
A database of records that map MAC addresses. It is stored on a computer's hard disk where it is used by the ARP utility to supply the MAC addresses of netowkr nodes, give their IP addresses.
binding
The process of assigning on network component to work with another.
BOOTP(Bootstrap Protocol)
An application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that uses a central list of IP addresses and their associated devices' MAC address to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically. It was a precursor to DHCP.
country code TLD
A top-level domain that corresponds to a country. IE(Canada would be .ca)
DDNS (Dynamic DNS)
A method of dynamically updating DNS records for a host. Client computers are configured to notify a service provider when their IP addresses change, then the service provider propogates the DNS record changes across the Internet automatically.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Application layer protocol the TCP/IP suite that manages the dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network. Using it to assign IP addresses can nearly eliminate duplicate addressing problems.
diskless workstation
A workstation that does not contain a hard disk, but instead relies on a small amount of read-only memory to connect to a network and to pick-up its system files.
DNS (Domain Name System or Domain Name Service)
A hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s. This database does not relay on one file or even one server, but rather is distributed over several key computers accross the Internet to prevent catastrophic failure if one or a few computers go down. It is a TCP/IP service that belongs to the Application layer of the OSI Model.
domain
A group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP address in common.
domain name
The symbolic name that identifies a domain. Usually, a domain name is associated with a company or other type of organization, such as a university or military unit.
dotted decimal notation
The shorthand convention used to represent IP addresses and make them more easily readable by humans. A decimal number between 0 and 255 represents each binary octect. A period or dot seperates each decimal.
dynamic IP address
An IP address that is assigned to a device through DHCP and may change when the DHCP lease expires or is terminated.
dynamic arp table entry
A record in an ARP table that is created when a client makes an ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the ARP table.
dynamic IP address
An IP address that is assigned to a device upon request and may change over time. BOOTP and DHCP are two ways of assigning it.
Dynamic Ports
TCP/IP ports in the range of 49,152 through 65,535, which are open for use without requiring adminstrative privileges on a host or approval from IANA.
echo reply
The response signal sent by a device after another devices pings it.
echo request
The request for a response generated when one device pings another device.
Format Prefix
A variable lenght field at the beginning of an IPv6 address that indicates what type of address it is (for example, unicast, anycast, or multicast)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
An Application Layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP.
fully qualified host name
A host name plus domain name. For example, a host belonging to the loc.gov domain might be called peggy, makings it peggy.loc.gov.
hop
a term used to describe each trip a unit of data takes from one connectivity device to another. Typically, the word is used in context of router-to-router communciations.
host file
A text file that associates TCP/IP hosts names with IP addresses.
hosts
The name of the host file used on a UNIX, Linux, and Windows systems. Ona a computer it is found in %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc folder.
ICMP(Internet Control Manager Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that notifies the sender that something has gone wrong in the transmission process and that packets were not delivered.
IGMP(Internet Group Management/Multicast Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol used to manage multicast transmissions. Routers use it to determine which nodes belong to a multicast group, and nodes use IGMP to join or leave a multicast group.
internetwork
To traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router.
IP datagram
The IP portion of a TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for data, holding information necessary for routers to transfer data between subnets.
Ifconfig
A TCP/IP configuration and management utility used with UNIX and Linux systems.
ipconfig
The utility used to display TCP/IP addressing and domain name information in the Windows NT,2000, and XP OSs.
IPv4 (IP version 4)
The current standard for IP addressing that specifies 32-bit addresses composed of four octets.
IPv4LL (IP version 4 Link Local)
A protocol that manages automatic address assignment among locally connected nodes. IT is part of the Zeroconf group of protocols.
IPv6 (IP version 6)
A newer standard of IP addressing that will replace the current IPv4. Most notably, it uses a newer, more efficient header in its packets and allows for 128-bit source and destination IP addresses. The use of longer addresses will allow for many more IP addresses to be in circulation.
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)
A core protocol of IPX/SPX suite that operates at the Network layer of the OSI Model and provides routing and internetwork services, similar to IP in the TCP/IP suite.
IPX address
An address assigned to a device on an IPX/SPX-based network.
IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange)
A protocol originally developed by Xerox, then modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for the NetWare network operating system.
label
A character string that represents a domain (either top-level, second-level, or third-level).
lease
The agreement between a DHCP server and client on how long the client can use a DHCP-assigned IP address. This can be configured for any amount of time.
loopback address
An IP address reserve for communicating from a node to itself (used mostly for troubleshooting puproses). It is always cited as 127.0.0.1, although in fact, tranmitting to any IP address whose first octect is "127" will contact the originating device.
loopback test
An attempt to contact one's own machine for troubleshooting purposes. In TCP/IP-based networking, it can be performed by communicating with an IP address that begins with an octet 127. Usually this means pinging the address 127.0.0.1
multicast address
A type of address in the IPv6 that represents multiple interfaces, often on multiple nodes. It begins with the following hexadecimal field:FF0x where x is the character that identifies the address's group scope.
multicasting
A means of transmission in which one device sends data to a specific group of devices (not necessarily the entire network segment) in a point-to-multipoint fashion. It can be used for video conferencing over the Internet , for example.
multiprotocol network
A network that uses more than one protocol.
name server
A server that contains a database of TCP/IP host names and their associated IP addresses. It supplies a resolver with the requested information. If it cannot resolve the IP address, the query passes to a higher-level.
name space
The database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names distributed over DNS name servers worldwide.
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
The Microsoft Adaptation of the IBM NetBIOS protocol. It expands on NetBIOS by adding a Transport layer component. It is a fast and effecient protocol that consumes few network resources, provides excellent error correction, and requires little configuration.
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System)
A protocol designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services for applications running on small, homogenous networks.
network class
A classification for TCP/IP based networks that pertains to the network's potential size and is indicated by an IP address's network ID and subnet mask. A,B, and C are commonly used by clients on LANs; D and E are reserved for special purposes.
network ID
The portion of an IP address common to all nodes on the same network or subnet.
newsgroup
An Internet-Based forum for exchanging messages, or articles between multiple servers and users.
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A simple Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network. It depends on UDP for Transport layer services.
octet
One of the four 8-bit bytes that are seperated by periods and together make up an IP address.
ping
to send an echo request signal from one node on a TCP/IP-based network to another.
PING (Packet Internet Groper) Utility
A TCP/IP troubleshooting utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network. It uses ICMP to send an echo request and echo reply messages that deteremine the validity of an IP address.
port number
The address on a host where an application makes itself avaialble to incomeing data.
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. It relies on a RARP table to assiciate the IP(logical) address of a node with its MAC (physical) address. It can bes used to supply IP addresses to diskless workstations.
Registered Ports
The TCP/IP ports in the range of 1024 - 49,151. These ports are accessible to network users and processes that do not have special administrative privleges. Default assignments of these ports must be registered with IANA.
release
The act of terminating a DHCP lease.
Rendezvous
Apple Computer's implementation of the Zeroconf group of protocols.
resolver
Any host on the Internet that needs to look up domain name information.
resource record
The element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names their addresses.
root server
A DNS server maintained by ICANN and IANA that is an authority on how to contact the top-level domains, such as those ending with .com, .edu, .net, .us. and so on. ICANN oversee the operation of 13 root servers around the world.
routable
The protocols that can span more than one LAN because they carry Network layer and addressing information that can be interpreted by a router.
socket
A logical address assigned to a specific process of running on a computer. Some sockets are reserved for operating system functions.
SPX (Sequence Packet Exchange)
One of the core protocols in the IPX/SPX suite. It belongs to the Transport layer of the OSI Model and works in tandem with IPX to ensure that data are received whole, in sequence, and error free.
static APR table entry
A record in a ARP table that someone has manually entered using the ARP utility. The table entries remain the same until someone manually modifies them using the ARP utility.
static IP address
An IP address that is manually assigned to a device and remains constant until it is manually changed.
subnet
A part of a network in which all nodes shares a network addressing component.
subnet mask
A 32-bit number that, when combined with a device's IP address, indicates what kind of subnet the device belongs to.
subnetting
The process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller , networks.
subprotocols
The specialized protocols that work together and belong to a protocol suite.
switch
The letters or words added to a command that allow you to customize the output. They are usually preceded by a hyphen or forward slash.
TCP (Transmission Control Panel)
A core protocol of the TCP/IP suite. It belongs to the Transport layer and provides reliable data delivery services.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control/Internet Protocol)
A suite of networking protocols that includes TCP, IP, UDP, and many others. It provides the foundation for data exchange across the Internet.
TCP/IP core protocols
The major sub-protocols of the TCP/IP suite, including IP, TCP and UDP.
Telnet
A terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol. It resides in the Application layer of the OSI model.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
A TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers. Unlike FTP, it relies on UDP at the Transport layer and does not require a user to log on to the remote host.
TLD (top-level domain)
The highest-level category used to distinguish domain names-for example, .org, .com, and .net. IT is also known as the domain suffix.
TTL (Time to Live)
A number that indicates the maximum time thata datagram or packet can remain on the network before it is discarded. Although this field was originally meant to represent units of time, on modern networks it represents the number of router hops a datagram has endured. It is variable and configurable, but is usually set at 32 0r 64. Each time a datagram passes through a routers, IT is reduced by 1. When a router receives a datagram with IT equal to 1, the router discards that datagram.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that is in the Transport layer of the OSI model. It is a connectionless transport service.
unicast address
A type of IPv6 address that represents a single interface on a device. It begins with either FFC0 or FF80.
Well Known Ports
The TCP/IP port numbers 0 to 1023, so named because they were and are, therefore, well known and frequently used.
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)
A service that resolves NetBIOS names with IP addresses. It is used exclusively with systems that use NetBIOS-therefore, it is found on a Windows-based systems.
Zeroconf (Zero Configuration)
A collection of protocols designed by the IETF to simplify the setup of nodes on a TCP/IP network. It assignes a node and IP address, resolves the node's host name and IP address without requiring a DNS server, and discovers services, such as print services, available to a node, also without requiring a DNS server.
What type of information must a protocol suite supply to be routable?
Network layer address
Which protocol suite grew popular in part because software developers have always been able to modify it freely?
TCP/IP
What field in an IP datagram can be used to indicate that a packet should be routed before any other packets?
The Differentiated Services field
What happens to an IP datagram when its TTL reaches 1?
It is discarded by the connectivity device.
What would be the effect on your overtaxed network if you reprogrammed all client and server Application layer protocols to use UDP rather than TCP?
Due to UDP’s unreliability and the amount of traffic on the network, more errors would likely occur and traffic levels would increase, resulting in slower response time.
What is the function of ARP?
To obtain the MAC address of a host, and then map that MAC address to the host’s IP address
Video transmission over the Web is best suited to using which protocol?
UDP
Suppose you have a workstation that uses the IP address 203.12.176.55. To what network class does the workstation belong?
C
How many bytes are used for an IPv4 IP address?
4
Suppose your computer’s IP address is 155.61.9.188, and your network administrator has not subnetted the network to which you’re connected. What is your computer’s subnet mask?
255.255.0.0
Suppose you send data to the 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 IP address. To what device(s) are you transmitting?
all devices on your network segment
What is the main difference between BOOTP and DHCP?
BOOTP relies on a static table to associate IP addresses with MAC addresses, whereas DHCP does not.
If you are connected to a network that uses DHCP, and you need to terminate your Windows XP workstation’s DHCP lease, which of the following commands would you use?
ipconfig /release
At a minimum, what fields would you find in a hosts file?
IP address and host name
What devices are the highest authorities in the domain name system hierarchy?
. root servers
On a client/server network, what computer initiates the process of assigning an IP address through DHCP?
the client
Why is TFTP a less secure protocol than FTP?
because TFTP does not require a logon ID and password to connect to the server, and FTP does
You are the network manager for a computer training center that allows clients to bring their own laptops to class for learning and note-taking. Clients need access to the Internet, so you have configured your network’s DHCP server to issue them IP addresses automatically. What DHCP option should you modify to make sure you are not wasting addresses that were used by clients who’ve completed a class and no longer need them?
the lease duration for client computers
You manage a server that allows university students to use Telnet to make a connection, then use FTP to upload their homework. Professors also pick up students’ homework by telnetting to the computer and using FTP. You have decided to change the FTP port number on the server from its default number to 23, for better security. Assuming students and professors make no changes to their default workstation configurations, what will be the result of this change?
Students and professors will be unable to Telnet to the server or FTP files to or from the server.
What method of transmission does a workstation use to send an ARP request?
a broadcast to all the nodes on its segment
If you want to determine only whether the TCP/IP protocols are installed and functioning properly on your workstation, you could:
attempt to ping the loopback address
In class, you glance at your neighbor’s computer and notice that she has typed the following IP address in her browser’s URL text box: 127.0.0.1:80. What is she attempting to do?
open a Web page that’s on her own computer
Which IPX/SPX core protocol provides data reliability services?
SPX
Why is NetBEUI unsuitable for Internet connections?
It’s not routable
Which of the following protocols will assist in determining whether packets reached their destinations?
b. ICMP