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120 Cards in this Set

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Classful Addressing
Simplest type of IP addressing as only Class A, Class B and Class C addresses are recognized. Class A: IP Address = 8 bits, Host = 24 bits; Class B: IP Address = 16 bits, Host = 16 bits; Class C: IP Address = 24 bits, Host = 8 bits.
Network ID
The terms network number and network prefix are used interchangeably.
Subnet Mask
Use of subnet masks identify how a network is subdivided. "1" bits in a subnet mask indicate that corresponding bits in an IP address contain network information. "0" bits indicate that corresponding bits in an IP address contain host information
ANDing
Logical process of combining bits. "1" bits plus "1" bits result in a "1". "0" bit plus any other bit results in a "0".
Reserved IP Addresses
IP addresses ending in "0" are reserved for the network ID (Example: 199.34.89.0 is invalid). IP addressing ending in "255" are reserved for the broadcast address (Example: 199.34.89.255 is invalid).
Equation for Calculating Subnets
2 to the nth power - 2 = y n = the number of bits in the subnet mask that must be switched from 0 to 1; y = the number of subners that result.
Extended Network Prefix
Term used to describe the additional bits used for subnet information plus the existing network ID.
Supernet
Subnet created by moving the subnet boundary to the left.
CIDR Notation (Slash Notation)
New shorthand for denoting the position of subnet boundaries (using a forward slash). Example: 199.34.89.0/22
CIDR Block
Forward slash plus the number of bits used for the extended network prefix. Example: 199.34.89.0/22
Default Gateway
First interprets its outbound requests to other subnets, and then interprets its inbound request from other subnets. Every device on a TCP/IP based network has one.
Default Router
Default gateways can also be a network interface on a router. Internet gateways are usually assigned an IP address that ends with an octet of "1".
Core Gateways
Gateways that make up the Internet backbone.
Intranet
Network or part of a network that uses browser-based services to exchange information within an enterprise.
Extranet
Network that uses Internet-like services and protocols to exchange information within an organization and with certain, authorized users outside of that organization.
Convergence
The provision of data, voice, fax and video services over the same packet-switched network.
Toll Bypass
Use of VoIP to avoid paying long distance telephone charges.
IP Telephony
Another name for VoIP (Voice over IP).
IP Telephones
Used with VoIP to transmit and receive only digital signals.
Softphone
Use of a computer programmed to act like an IP telephone.
Call Tracking System
Software program (also known as help disk software) that provides a user-friendly graphical interface that prompts the user for every piece of information associated with the problem: unique number, call info, nature of problem, time to resolve, and nature of resolution.
Supported Services List
Document that lists every service and software package supported within the organization, plus the names of first- and second-level contacts for those services or software packages.
Change Management System
Process or program that provices support personnel with a centralized means of documenting changes to a network.
Tone Generator
Small electronic device that issues a signal on a wire pair. Used with a tone locator, which emits a tone when it detects electrical activity on a wire pair.
Multimeter
Instrument that measures many characteristics of an electric circuit, including its resistance and voltage.
Voltmeter
Instrument that measures the pressure, or voltage, of an electric current.
Ohmmeter
Device used to measure resistance.
Cable Tester
Also called cable checkers or continuity testers, it finds the cause of a problem by simply testing whether your cable is carrying a signal to its destination. Also includes more sophisticated tools that can measure cable performance.
Cable Performance Tester
Accomplishes the same continuity and fault tests as a cable tester, but can also: measure distance to connectivity device; measure attenuation; measure crosstalk; test cable standards.
Network Monitor
Software-based tool that continually monitors network traffic from a server or workstation attached to a network - layer 3 of the OSI. Ships with Windows NT, 2000 and 2003.
Promiscuous Mode
Device driver that directs the NIC to pick up all frames that pass over the internet - not just those destined for the node served by the NIC.
Baseline
Record of how the network operates under normal conditions, including its performance, collision rate, utilization rate, etc.
Runts
Packets that are smaller than the mediums minimum packet size. Runts often the result of collisions.
Giants
Packets that exceed the mediums maximum packet size.
Jabber
Device that handles electrical signals improperly, usually affecting the rest of the network - usually the result of a bad NIC.
Ghosts
Frames that are not actually data frames, but aberrations caused by a device misinterpreting stray voltage on the wire - ghosts contain no starting delimeter.
Protocol Analyzer
Tool to capture network traffic and analyze frames - all the way up to Layer 7 of the OSI. It supports a multitude of protocols and network topologies. Hardware-based protocol analyzer is called a "sniffer".
Spectrum Analyzer
Tool that can assess the quality of the wireless signal.
Site Selection
Determining the optimal placement for Access Points on a wireless LAN.
Polymorphic Viruses
Viruses that change their characteristics (bytes, size and internal instructions.
Time-dependent Viruses
Programmed to activate on a particular date (also known as time bombs) - can remain dormant and harmless until their activation date arrives.
Signiture Scanning
Comparison of file's content with known virus signitures - database must be frequently updated so that the software can detect new viruses as they emerge.
Integrity Checking
Method of comparing current characteristics of files and disks against an archived version of these charatcteristics to discover any changes - involves using a checksum.
Heuristic Scanning
Scanning techniques that attempt to identify viruses by discovering "virus-like" behavior.
Network Failure
Deviation from a specified level of system performance for a given period of time.
Network Fault
Involves the malfunction of one component of a system, which can result in a failure.
Standby UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
Provides continuous voltage to a device by switching virtually instantaneously to the battery when it detects a loss of power (also called offline UPS).
Online UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)
Uses the A/C power from the wall to continuously charge its battery, while providing power to a network device through its battery.
Volt-amp (VA)
To determine approximately how many VAs your device requires, use this conversion: 1.4 volt-amps + 1 Watt (Example: 200W power supply would need a UPS capable of at least 280 VA).
Fail-over
Capability of a component to immediately assume the duties of an identical component should the original fail.
Load Balancing
Automatic distribution of traffic over multiple links or processors to optimize response.
Mirroring
Fault-tolerance technique in which one device or component duplicates the activities of another.
Replication
Refers to the dynamic copying of data from one location to another.
Clustering
Fault-tolerance technique that links multiple servers together to act as a single server - clustered servers share processing duties and appear as a single server. Clustering is more cost-effective than mirroring for large networks.
Hardware RAID
Includes a set of disks and a separate disk controller - managed exclusively by the RAID disk controller.
Software RAID
Relies on software to implement and control RAID techniques over virtually any type of hard disk - less expensive than hardware RAID. Windows 2003 server: Disk Management; NetWare Server: iManager; Red Hat Linux: Disk Druid.
RAID Level 0
Disk stripping - data is written in 64-KB blocks equally across all disks in the array - not fault-tolerant, but improves performance by utilizing multiple disk controllers.
RAID Level 1
Provides redundancy through a process called disk mirroring (data from one disk is copied to another disk automatically as the info is written - dynamic backup).
Disk Duplexing
Data is copied from one disk to another when it is saved, like disk mirroring - separate disk controller is used for each different disk.
RAID Level 3
Disk Striping with Parity ECC (Error Correction Code) - algorithm used to detect and correct errors.
Parity Error Checking
Process of comparing the parity of data read from disk with the type of parity used by the system.
RAID Level 5
Disk Striping With Distributed Parity - highly fault-tolerant, most popular data storage techique in use today. Data is written in small blocks across several disks. Parity error checking information is distributed among the disks.
Hot Spare
Used in RAID Level 5, a disk or partition that is part of the array, but used only in case one of the disks fails.
Full Backup
All data on a server is copied to storage media, regardless of whether the data is new or changed. After backing up the files, a full backup unchecks or turns off the archive bit.
Incremental Backup
Only data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup is copied to storage media. The archive bit is then turned off.
Differential Backup
Only the data that has changed since the last full backup is copied to storage media. The archive bit is NOT turned off.
Backup rotation scheme
Plan that specifies when and how often backups will occur.
Grandfather-father-son backup strategy
Daily: son; Weekly: father; Monthly: grandfather
Disaster Recovery
Process of restoring your critical functionality and data after an enterprise-wide outage that affects more than a single system or a limited group of users.
Cold Site
Place where the computers, devices and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, but they are not appropriately configured, updated or connected.
Warm Site
Place where the computers, devices and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, with some appropriately configured, updated or connected.
Hot Site
Place where the computers, devices, and connectivity necessary to rebuild a network exist, and all are appropriately configured, updated and connected to match your network's current site.
Security Audit
Thorough exam of each aspect of the network to determine how it might be compromised - performed at least anually and preferably quarterly. It rates severity of effects and likelihood.
Social Engineering
Manipulating social relationships to gain access to a network or workstation.
IP Spoofing
Obtain internal IP addresses, then use those addresses to pretend that they have authority to access your internal network from the Internet.
Flashing
During Internet chat, users might send commands that cause the screen to fill up with garbage character and require them to terminate their chat sesion.
Denial-of-service Attack
System becomes unable to function because it has been deluged with data tranmissions or otherwise disrupted.
Roles of Security Response Policy
Dispatcher, Manager, Technical Support Specialist, and Public Relations Specialist.
Bio-recognition
Device scans an individual's unique physical characteristics (color patterns of the iris, geometry of hand, etc).
Packet-Filtering Firewall
Router (or computer with software installed) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination. (Also called screening firewalls). Network Layer of OSI.
Proxy Server
Software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic. Network host = proxy server, Application Layer of OSI. Windows: ISA Server; Unix: Squid; Novell: BorderManager.
Login Restrictions
Time of day, total time logged on, source address, and unsuccessful logon attempts.
Dictionary Attack
Use of programs that try a combination of your user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.
Encryption
Use of an algorithm to scramble data into a format that can be read only by reversing the alogrithm.
Key Encryption
Key is a random string of characters that is inserted into the data's bits serveral times in different sequences to generate a unique data block.
Ciphertext
Scrabled data block that is the result of inserting a encryption key into data.
Brute Force Attack
Trying numerous possible character combinations to find the key that will decrypt encrypted data.
Private Key Encryption
Data is encrypted using a single key that only the sender and the receiver know - also known as symmetric encryption because the same key is used during both the tranmission and reception of data.
Public Key Encryption
Data is encrypted using 2 keys: one is a key known only to a user, and other is a public key associated with the user. It uses a public key server, which is a publicly accessible host that freely provides a list of users' public keys.
Key Pair
Combination of a public key and a private key.
Asymmetric Encryption
Another name for public key encryption because it requires the use of two different keys.
Digital Certificate
Password protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.
Handshake Protocol
Allows the client and server to authenticate each other and establishes terms for how they will securely exchange data. Uses client_hello and server_hello messages.
DNS Spoofing
When hacker's forge name server records to falsify the host's identity.
OpenSSH
Open source versions of the protocol suite SSH (Secure Shell).
Port-Forwarding
Redirect traffic that would normally use an insecure port to an SSH-secured port.
Key Management
Way in which 2 nodes agree on common parameters for the keys they'll use
Authentication Protocols
Rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.
Mutual Athentication
Both computers verify the credentials of the other - clients authenticate the server, and vice versa.
Kerberos
Cross-platform authentication protocol that uses key encryption to verify the identity of clients and to securely exhange information after a client logs onto the system. Requires a client to prove its identity through a 3rd party.
War Driving
Driving around with a laptop configured to receive and capture wireless data tranmissions.
802.11i
Specifies the AES encryption method and mixes each packet in a data stream with a different key. More secure than WEP, and will probably replace in the future.
Project Management
Practice of managing staff, budget, timelines, and other resources and variables to achieve a specific goal within given bounds. 4 phases: initiation, specification, implementation and resolution.
Milestone
Reference point that marks the completion of a major task or group of tasks in the project and contributes to measuring the project's progress.
Feasibility Study
Outlines the costs and benefits of the project and attempts to predict whether it will result in favorable outcome - should be performed for any large-scale project before resources are committed to the project.
Needs Assessment
Process of clarifying the reasons and objectives underlying a proposed change. It involves interviewing users and comparing preceptions to factual data - determine the appropriate scope and nature of the proposed change.
Sponsors
Managers and other who oversee resource allocation - they don't necessarily participate in project tasks or supervise project teams, but they can lobby for funding, change deadlines, and negotiate on vendor contracts.
Stakeholder
Person who is affected by a project, like a user on a network that's being upgraded.
Gantt Chart
Popular method for depicting when projects begin and end along a horizontal timeline.
Contingency Planning
Process of identifying steps that minimize the risk of unforeseen events that could affect the quality or timeliness of the project’s goals.
Pilot Network
Small-scale network that stands in for the larger network – similar enough to closely mimic the larger network’s hardware, software, connectivity, unique configurations and load.
Network Management
Assessment, monitoring and maintenance of all aspects of a network.
Baseline Assessment
Includes: Physical Topology, Access Method, Protocols, Devices, Operating Systems and Applications
Performance Management
Monitors how well links and devices are keeping up with the demands placed on them.
Fault management
Detection and signaling of device, link or component failure.
Polling
Collection of data from multiple networked devices at regular intervals.
Asset Management
Identifying and tracking the hardware and software on your network (number of components on the network, each device’s configuration files, model, number, serial number, location on the network and tech. Support contact. Software information includes version number, vendor, licensing and technical support contact.
Patches
Correction, improvement, or enhancement to a particular piece of software application. Differs from revision or software upgrade in that it changes only part of an application, leaving most of the code untouched.
Software Upgrade
Major change to a software package’s existing code – designed to add functionality and fix bugs in the previous version of the client.
Backleveling
Process of reverting to a previous version of software after attempting to upgrade.