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37 Cards in this Set

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CIDR
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (classless routing or supernetting) - provides additional ways of arranging network and host information in an IP address. Conventional network class distinctions don't exist. CIDR moves bits to the left instead of the right like in classful addressing.
NAT
Network Address Translation - technique in which IP addresses used on a private
network are assigned a public IP address by a gateway when accessing a public network.
ICS
Internet Connection Sharing - configured to translate requests to and from the Internet on behalf of other computers on the network. The ICS Host acts as a DHCP server, DNS resolver and NAT gateway for clients on its LAN.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - responsible for moving messages from one mail server to another over TCP/IP-based networks. SMTP belongs in the Application layer (OSI) and relies on TCP at the Transport layer. Port 25
MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - standard for encoding and interpreting binary files, images, video, and non-ACSII character sets within an email message. MIME doesn't replace SMTP, but works in conjuction with it.
POP3
Post Office Protocol 3 - Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server. Port 110
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol - mail retrievel protocol that was developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP3. IMAP can replace POP3 without changing email programs. Biggest advantage is that users can store messages on the mail server, rather than always downloading them to the local machine.
VoIP
Voice over IP - use of packet-switched networks and the TCP/IP protocol to transmit voice conversations. It lowers the cost for calls, supplies new or enhanced features, and centralizes voice and data network management.
IP-PBX
IP-Private Branch Exchange - telephone switch used to connect call within a private organization.
TDR
Time Domain Reflectometer - issues a signal on a cable and then measures the way the signal bounces back.
OTDR
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer - same as a TDR, except it tranmits light-based signals of different wavelengths over fiber-optic cables.
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks - collection of disks that provide fault-tolerance for share data and applications - group of disks is called a disk array. RAID increases storage capacity and potentially better performance.
NAS
Network Attached Storage - specialized storage device or group of storage devices that provide centralized fault-tolerant data storage for a network. Differs from RAID in that it maintains its own interface to the LAN. Compare NAS.
SANs
Storage Area Networks - distinct networks of storage devices that communicate directly with each other and with other networks. Extremely fault-tolerant and fast - uses Fibre Channel, which connects devices within SAN and also connects the SAN to other networks (2Gbps throughput).
DES ("dez")
Data Encryption Standard - popular, private (symmetric) encryption which uses a 56-bit key.
3DES
Triple Data Encryption Standard - modern implemenation of DES, 3DES provides greater security by weaving a 56-bit key through data 3 times, using 2 or 3 different keys.
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard - weaves keys of 128, 160, 192 or 256 bits through data multiple times - alogrithm is known as "Rijndael".
RSA
Popular public key algorithm in use today. Developed by 3 men with with last name initials RSA. RSA is used to secure e-commerce transactions.
RC4
Used in conjuction with RSA, RC4 weaves a key with data multiple times, as a computer issues the stream of data.
PGP
Pretty Good Privacy - public key encryption system that can verify the authencity of an email sender and encrypt email data in tranmissions.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer - method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions - including web pages and data entered into web forms - en route between the client and server using public key encryption technology.
HTTPS
HTTP Over SSL - uses TCP port number 443, instead of 80.
SSL Session
Association between client and server that is defined by an agreement on a specific set of encryption techniques.
TLS
Transport Layer Security - IETF standardization of SSL.
SSH
Secure Shell - collection of protocols that provides security for establishing a connection and security for tranmitting data - more secure than Telnet.
SCP
Secure Copy - allows you to copy files from one host to another securely - replaces FTP.
SFTP
Secure File Transfer Protocol - establishes a connection with a host and then allows a remote user to browse directories, list and copy files. More features than SCP.
IPSec
Internet Protocol Security - protocol that defines encryption, authentication, and key management for TCP/IP transmissions. IPSec encrypts data by adding security information to the header of all IP packets. Operates at Network layer of OSI.
RADIUS (and TACACS)
Remote Authentication Dial-In Service - service used to authenticate users in environments in which many simultaneous dial-up connections must be supported and their user IDs and passwords managed. TACACS is earlier version of RADIUS.
PAP
Password Authentication Protocol - used in PPP, it sends an authentication request that includes its credentials (user name and password). Not very secure.
CHAP (and MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol - operates over PPP, but encrypts user names and passwords for transmission. Requires 3 steps to complete authentication process, which is called a three-way handshake.
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol - extension to the PPP protocol suite, it is only a mechanism for authenticating clients and servers, it doesn't perform authentication on its own. Supported by all modern OSs.
WEP
Wireless Equivalent Privacy - uses keys both to authenticate network clients and to encrypt data in transit. When configuring WEP, you establish a character string required to associate with the AP, or network key.
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access - subset of 802.11i, WPA specifies RC4 encryption rather than AES. An updated version is called WPA2.
MIB
Management Information Base
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol: part of TCP/IP suite; typically runs over UDP on port 161.
MRTG
Multi-Router Traffic Grapher – command-line utility that uses SNMP to poll devices, collects data in a log file, then generates HTML-based views of the data.