Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/70

Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
WLL
Wireless Local Loop
LAN
Local Area Network
MAN
Metropolitan Area Network
WAN
Wide Area Network
NOS
Network Operating System
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
EIA
Electronic Industries Alliance
TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
ITU
International Telecommunications Union
ISOC
Internet Society
IAB
Internet Architecture Board
IETR
Internet Engineering Task Force
IANA
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
OSI Model
Open Systems Interconnect Model
SYN
Synchronization - a client's TCP protocol first sends a SYN packet request to a web server.
SYN-ACK
Synchronization-Acknowledgement - web server responds to the client's SYN packet request.
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
FCS
Frame Check Sequence - used in error checking
LLC
Logical Link Control
MAC
Media Access Control
FM
Frequency Modulation - data is modified to follow a particular path.
AM
Amplitude Modulation - the amplitude is modified.
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing - divides a channel into multiple intervals of time.
WDM
Wavelength Division Multiplexing - one fiber-optic connection can carry multiple light signals simultaneously, and channels are designated by different colors of light.
DWDM
Dense Wave Division Multiplexing - A single fiber in a fiber-optic cable can carry between 80-160 channels.
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference - noise cause by waves emanating from electrical devices/cables. (Example: power lines, TVs, copiers, flourescent lights)
RFI
Radiofrequency Interference - one type of EMI cause by radio waves.
RTT
Round-Trip Time - length of time it takes a packet to go from sender to receiver and back (measured in milliseconds).
RG (Coaxial Cables)
Radio Grade - Rating of different types of Coaxial cable.
STP
Shielded Twisted-Pair - more expensive, but more resistant to crosstalk.
UTP
Unshielded Twisted-Pair - less expensive, but less resistant to crosstalk.
SMF
Single-Mode Fiber - high bandwidth, long distances, expensive, single path of laser light (used to connect carriers/facilities)
MMF
Multi-Mode Fiber - larger core (diameter), so light travels at different angles (used to connect router to switch or server to backbone)
CIDR
Classless Inter-Domain Routing
LOS
Line-Of-Sight - Signal travels directly in a straight line from the transmitter to the intended receiver. This type of propagation uses the least amount of energy and results in the clearest possible signal.
FHSS
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum - Signals jump between several different frequencies within a band in a synchronization pattern.
DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum - A signal's bits are distributed over an entire frequency band at once. The receiver can reassemble the original upon receipt.
AP
Access Point - device that accepts wireless signals from multiple nodes and retransmits them to the rest of the network.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol - Network layer protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery; also it can indicate which networks are congested.
IGMP
Internet Group Management (Multicast) Protocol - Network layer protocol that mananges multicasting, which is the transmission menthod that allows one node to send data to a defined group of nodes (point-to-multipoint method).
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol - Network layer protocol that obtains the MAC address of a host (node), then creates a database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP address.
ARP Table
Database of recognized MAP-to-IP addresses on a hard disk.
Dynamic ARP Table vs. Static ARP Table
Dynamic: entries are created when a client makes an ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the ARP table. Static: entries that are manually entered into the ARP table using the ARP utility.
RARP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol - allows a client to send a broadcast message with its MAC address and receive an IP address in reply (the opposite fuction of ARP).
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol - Application layer protocol that uses a central list of IP addresses and their associated devices' MAC addresses to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on the network; Application layer of OSI; replacement for BOOTP; operates in a similar manner to BOOTP; does not require the network administrator to maintain a table of IP and MAC addresses on the server.
TLD
Top-Level Domain (Example: www.novell.com - .com is the top-level, novell is 2nd, and www is 3rd.
DNS
Domain Name System - associates names with IP addresses; Application layer of OSI; computers are related in a hierarchical manner, with 13 computer (root servers), acting as the ultimate authorities.
DDNS
Dynamic DNS - Service provider runs a program on the user's computer that notifies the service provider when the user's IP address changes; DDNS doesn't take the place of DNS, but is an additional service available for a small fee; good option for home or small office users.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol - Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP. Start FTP utility by typing FTP from command prompt. Many FTP hosts accept anonymous logins - user name anonymous and email address for password. To learn more about FTP commands, type help at FTP command prompt.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol - Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers, but it's simpler than FTP. TFTP relies on UDP at the Transport layer, it's connectionless, and doesn't requite logon. TFTP doesn't allow directory browsing like FTP.
NTP
Network Time Protocol - Application layer protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network. NTP depends on UDP for Transport layer services.
NNTP
Network News Transport Protocol - Facilitates the exchange of newgroup messages between multiple servers and users. Newsgroups distribute messages to a wide group of users at once rather than one user to another like email.
PING
Packet Internet Groper - utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to NIC, configured correctly and communicating with the network. First, a signal (echo) is sent to another computer - the other computer rebroadcasts the signal (echo reply).
IPX/SPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange - developed by Xerox, then modified by Novell in the 80s for NetWare. Microsoft's implemenatation of IPX/SPX is call NWLink.
IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange - operates at Network layer of OSI and provides logical addressing and internetworking services similar to IP in TCP/IP; connectionless; doesn't guarantee data will be delivered in sequence or without errors.
SPX
Sequenced Packet Exchange - Transport layer of OSI; ensures that data are received whole, in sequence and error free. SPX is like TCP in TCP/IP; connection-oriented; must verify that a session has been established before transmission of data.
NetBIOS
Network Basic Input Output System - protocol originally designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session Layer services for applications running on small, homogenous networks.
NetBEUI
NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface - Microsoft's adaption of NetBIOS. NetBEUI is efficient protocol that uses few resources, provides error correction, and requires little configuration. Allows only 254 connections, not good security and not routable.
WINS
Windows Internet Naming Services - Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network - created by switches, VLANs logically separate networks within networks by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.
RIP
Routing Information Protocol (IP and IPX) - oldest protocol, factors in only the number of hops between nodes when determining best path, but doesn't consider congestion or link speed. Interior routing protocol, so doesn't work well in a very large network environment.
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First - interior and border routers, can coexist with RIP. No hop limits, more complex algorithm for determining best path, fast convergence time, commonly used on LANs with mixed router manufacturers.
EIGRP
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IP, IPX and AppleTalk) - Interior and border routers, fast convergence time, low network overhead, supports multiple protocols and accomodates very large heterogeneous networks (Cisco Routers only).
BGP
Border Gateway Protocol (IP) - Routing protocol of Internet backbones, so not used between nodes on a LAN. Most complex protocol.