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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___ are examples of effectors of the nervous system
Nerves are ___ of the nervous system
____ are the primary site for receiving signals from other neurons
While the membrane is depolarizing its _____ are fully open
sodium gates are fully open
A cholinergic synapse employs ___ as its neurotransmitter
Which of these is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?
A)a voltage change from 0 mV to +0.35 mV
B)a voltage change from -70 mV to -70.5 mV
C)a voltage change from +35 mV to 0 mV
D)a voltage change from -69.5 mV to -70 mV
E)a voltage change from -70 mV to -69.5 mV
E)a voltage change from -70 mV to -69.5 mV
___ form myelin in the spinal cord
____ division carries signals to the smooth muscle in the large intestine
Visceral motor
Local potentials are _____, meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus
Presynaptic inhibition is the opposite of
Local potentials are ___, whereas action potential are ___
graded; all or none
All of the following are typical characteristics of neurotransmitters except
they are released into the bloodstream before reaching the postsynaptic cell
The myelin sheath is formed by
Most of the myelin sheath is composed of _______
___ has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential
During the absolute refractory period
no stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential
A traveling wave of excitation is what we know as
a nerve signal
___ binds to ligand-regulated gates, and is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?
A)Adenylate cyclase is activated
B)G protein dissociates from the NE receptor
C)ATP is converted to cyclic AMP
D)G protein binds to adenylate cyclase
E)cyclic AMP induces several effects in the cell
G protein dissociates from the NE receptor
All of these contribute to the cessation of the signal in a synaptic transmission except:
A)synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter by exocytosis
B)enzymes in the postsynaptic cell break down some neurotransmitters
C)neurotransmitter escapes from the synapse into the nearby extracellular fluid
D)neurotransmitters stop being released
E)the synaptic knob reabsorbs some neurotransmitters by endocytosis
synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter by exocytosis
The ___ division tends to prepare the body for action
Some ___ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas ____ neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system
afferent; efferent
___ neurons are the most common type of neurons
Accumulation of Ca2+ in the synaptic knob is called ___, and probably plays an important role in ___
synaptic facilitation; short-term memory
Opening of sodium gates typically leads to
depolarization of the plasma membrane.
Some antidepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), which is an enzyme
that breaks down monoamines.
Opening of __ gates produces an ___.
chloride; IPSP
The best type of neural pool for producing a prolonged output is
a reverberating circuit.
Most local potentials happen at the
___ excites skeletal muscle and inhibits cardiac muscle.
An inhibitory local potential
hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane.
Which of these happens first in an cholinergic synaptic transmission?
A)postsynaptic potential is produced
B)ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft
C)sodium enters the postsynaptic cell
D)Ach binds to ligand-regulated gates
E)synaptic vesicles release ACh
synaptic vesicles release ACh
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are associated with
hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.
Even though all action potentials are the same, the brain can differentiate a variety of stimuli by source and intensity. The mechanism by which the nervous system converts these action potentials into meaningful information is called neural