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206 Cards in this Set

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What do the nervous system and endocrine system do that is similar?
function to regulate and coordinate all body activities
What are the three functions of the nervous system?
sensory, integrative and motor
Name the three types of neurons, give their funtion, and where each is located.
(1) sensory neuron transmits the impulse toward the CNS and is located in the PNS (2) interneurons transmits impulses within the CNS and are located in the CNS (3) motor neuron transmits impulses away from the CNS to the effector and is located in the PNS
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What does the CNS consist of?
brain and spinal cord
What are the four parts of the brain?
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brain stem
What does the PNS consist of?
cranial nerves and spinal nerves
What are the two subdivisions of the PNS?
somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Describe the actions of the SNS.
sensations are consciously perceived and the actions carried out are voluntary
Describe the actions of the ANS.
sensations are not consciously perceived and the actions carried out are involuntary
What are the receptors for the general senses?
touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, pain and proprioception
What are the receptors for the special senses?
smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium
Whar are the effectors for the SNS?
skeletal muscle
What are the effectos for the ANS?
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
What are the two types of nerve cells?
neurons and neuroglia cells
What are the functions of neurons?
functions to transmit nerve impulses
What are the functions of neuroglia cells?
functions to support, nourish, insulate and protect neurons
What are the three parts to a neuron?
cell body, dendrites and axon
What does the cell body contain?
nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes and Golgi apparatus
What are Nissl bodies and what are their functions?
rough endoplasmic reticulum; ribosomes on the RER are the site of protein synthesis where neurotransmitters are produced, then the endoplasmic reticulum moves the neurotransmitter through the cell
What are dendrites?
nerve fibers
What do dendrites transmit the impulse toward?
toward the cell body
What are axons?
nerve fibers
Where do axons transmit the impulse?
away from the cell body
What is the axon hillock?
mound on one side of the cell body from which the axon develops
What are axon terminals?
branched ends of an axon
What are synaptic end bulbs?
the swollen ends of the axon terminal that contain synaptic vesicles
What do the synaptic vesicles contain?
neurotransmitters
What is the synaptic cleft or synaptic gap?
gap between the synaptic end knob and the other neuron or effector
What are three types of neurons?
unipolar, bipolar and multipolar
Name the five types of neuroglial cells we studied.
Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes), oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells
What are Schwann cells?
myelin producing cells
Where are Schwann cells located?
in the PNS
What is the myelin sheath?
lipids and proteins
How many Schwann cells can insulate one axon?
up to 500
What effect does myelin have on speed of impulse?
increases
What is the neurilemma?
the outside portion of the Schwann cell that contains the nucleus and the other cell organelles
Can there be regeneration in an axon myelinated by Schwann cells?
yes
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
spaces or gaps between Schwann cells
What are oligodendrocytes?
myelin producing cells
Where are oligodendrocytes located?
in the CNS
How many axons can one oligodendrocyte myelinate?
15
Does an oligodendrocyte contain a neurilemma?
no
Can there be any regeneration to an axon myelinated by oligodendrocytes?
no
What is the function of astrocytes?
astrocytes connect the neuron to blood vessels as part of the blood brain barrier
What is the function of microglia cells?
microglia cells are macrophages that phagocytize pathogenic microorganisms
What is the function of ependymal cells?
ependymal cells line the ventricles and help to move the CSF
What is white matter?
myelinated nerve fibers
What part of the neuron is usually myelinated?
axon
Does myelin make the impulse travel faster?
yes
What is the propagation called when the axon is myelinated?
saltatory
What is gray matter?
unmyelinated nerve fibers
What is the propagation called in gray matter and how fast does the impulse travel?
continuous propagation; travels slower
Are sensory neurons unipolar, multipolar or bipolar?
unipolar
Are motor neurons unipolar, multipolar or bipolar?
multipolar
Where are interneurons found?
CNS
Are interneurons unipolar, multipolar or bipolar?
multipolar
What do interneurons synapse with?
synapse with other interneurons or with sensory and motor neurons
What is a bundle of nerve fibers in the PNS called?
nerve
What is the resting membrane potential?
when the neuron is at rest and is not conducting a nervous impulse
Is a resting membrane potential polarized, depolarized or repolarized?
polarized
In a polarized neuron, where are the Na and K ions?
Na ions are outside the neuron and K ions are inside the neuron
In a polarized neuron, what is the charge on the inside and outside of the neuron?
a positive charge on the outside and a negative charge on the inside
When a neuron is depolarized, where are the Na and K ions?
Na and K ions are on the inside of the neuron
What is the charge on the inside and outside of the depolarized neuron?
a positive charge on the inside and a negative charge on the outside
When a neuron is repolarized, where are the Na and K ions?
Na ions are on the inside and K ions are on the outside
What is the charge on the inside and outside of the repolarized neuron?
a negative charge on the inside and a positive charge on the outside
What is an action potential?
an action potential is a nerve impulse (also known as depolarization/repolarization)
What is the all or none response?
if the input to the neuron reaches threshold, the nerve impulse will go through the neuron to completion; if the input does not reach threshold, the nerve impulse will not be transmitted
Is the action potential self propagating?
yes
Does an action potential travel in only one direction?
yes
Where do you find saltatory conduction?
myelinated axons
Where do you find continuous conduction?
unmyelinated axons
What are the four steps in the generation of an action potential?
(1) the neuron is stimulated to threshold, (2) Na ions rush into the axon causing depolarization, (3) K ions rush out of the axon causing repolarization, (4) the Na/K pump reestablishes the Na ion concentration on the outside of the neuron and the K ion concentration on the inside of the neuron
What is a synapse?
functional junction between a presynaptic neuron and a post synaptic neuron or between a neuron and its effector
A synapse can communicate between several things. What are they?
an interneuron and an interneuron OR a sensory neuron and an interneuron OR a neuron and an effector (muscle or gland)
What is the sequence of events for a synaptic transmission?
(1) the nerve impulse reaches the synaptic knob, (2) calcium ions move into the synaptic knob and acetylcholine (ACh) is released into the synaptic cleft, (3) ACh binds to a receptor on the dendrite or cell body and causes Na channels to open causing depolarization, (4) acetycholinesterase breaks down excess ACh or ACh is taken back up by the presynaptic neuron, (5) the synaptic transmission is complete and the neuron is ready for another impulse
What is the neurotransmitter in most synaptic transmissions?
the chemical that transmits the nerve impulse across the synapse to another neuron or an effector, it can be acetylcholine or norepinephrine
What is the enzyme that decomposes this acetylcholine or norepinephrine?
acetylcholinesterase or cholinesterase
Can some of the neurotransmitter be taken up into the presynaptic end bulb?
yes
Why does an impulse travel in only one direction across a synapse?
only the synaptic end bulb has synaptic vesicles with the neurotransmitter which is required to initiate the impulse (the dendrite or the cell body does not have synaptic vessels with neurotransmitters)
The synaptic end bulbs usually synapse to what structures on the postsynaptic neuron?
dendrite or cell body
Name two principle neurotransmitters in the PNS.
acetylcholine and norepinephrine
Which neurotransmitter is always released at the neuromuscular junction?
acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is always released between the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in the autonomic nervous system?
acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is released at the postganglionic fiber in the parasympathetic system?
acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released from the cholinergic fibers?
acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released from the adrenergic fibers?
norepinephrine or epinephrine
What neurotransmitter is released from the postganglionic fiber in the sympathetic nervous system?
epinephrine
Name three CNS neurotransmitters.
norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine
Which one causes severe depression if there is inadequate production?
serotonin
Which one does prozac inhibit the reuptake of?
serotonin
Which one causes symptoms of Parkinson’s disease if there is inadequate production?
dopamine
What are substances that alter the neuron’s response to a neurotransmitter or block the release of a neurotransmitter?
neuromodulators
What is the general term of neuromodulators that inhibit substance P?
endorphins
What does substance P relay?
pain
What drug is structurally related to our natural endorphins?
morphine
What is a reflex?
automatic, unconscious, unlearned, involuntary, built in behavior
What is a nerve pathway?
the pathway that a nervous impulse takes as it goes through the nervous system
What is a reflex pathway?
the simplest nerve pathway
What are some examples of somatic reflexes? Are they involuntary?
blinking, ducking, knee jerk, withdrawl; yes
What are some examples of autonomic reflexes? Are they involuntary?
blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate; yes
What are the five components of a reflex arc?
receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector
How many neurons are in a knee-jerk reflex?
2
How many neurons are in a withdrawal reflex?
3
What is a reflex with one synapse called?
monosynaptic reflex
What is a reflex with more than one synapse called?
polysynaptic reflex
List four ways that the CNS is protected.
bones of the cranium and vertebrae, meninges, CSF, blood brain barrier
List the meninges from outermost to innermost.
dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
What does the dura mater take the place of in the cranium?
periosteum
What makes up the epidural space and where is it located?
adipose tissue and blood vessels; located between the bones of the vertebrae and the dura mater
What are the blood-filled channels formed by splitting the dura mater?
dual sinus or superior sagittal sinus
Where is the subarachnoid space and what is located there?
located between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater; CSF
What is the function of the pia mater?
follows every contour of the brain and the spinal cord and provides nourishment for them
Where is CSF located and what is CSF?
ventricles and canals (subarachnoid space and the central canal) of the CNS; CSF is a clear, colorless liquid with a composition very similar to plasma
What produces the CSF and where are they located?
choroid plexus; located in the ventricles of the brain
What are the functions of the CSF?
supports and protects the brain, acts as an shock absorber, transports nutrients, hormones and waste products
Where does the CSF reenter the blood?
dural sinus or superior sagittal sinus
When astrocytes permit certain substances to enter the brain tissue and prevent others, what is this called?
blood brain barrier
Name the four parts of the brain.
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
What is the largest part of the brain?
cerebrum
What separates the cerebrum into two halves?
longitudinal fissure
What are the two halves of the cerebrum called?
right and left hemispheres
What separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
transverse fissure
What connects the cerebrum?
corpus callosum
What are the shallow grooves called?
sulci
What are the ridges called?
gyri
What are the functions of the cerebrum?
conscious thought, memory, creativity, personality, primary motor cortex (initiating voluntary muscular movement), primary sensory cortex (receives and interprets sensory impulses from the skin), receives sensory impulses from special senses on specific lobes
Name the four lobes located on the cerebrum and give their functions.
frontal lobe – problem solving; temporal lobe – hearing; parietal lobe – understanding words; occipital lobe – sight
Where is white matter located in the cerebrum? Why is it white?
in the interior of the cerebrum; it is white because it consist of myelinated nerve fibers
Name the fiber that transmits the impulse between convolutions in the same hemisphere.
association fibers
Name the fiber that transmits the impulse from on hemisphere to the other.
commissural fibers
Name the fiber that transmits impulses from the cerebrum to others parts of the brain or spinal cord.
projection fibers
Where is the gray matter located in the cerebrum?
Why is it gray?
the edge of the cerebrum known as the cortex; it is gray because it consist of unmyelinated fibers
If you stimulate a specific motor neuron here, you generate a contraction in a specific skeletal muscle. Name this place.
primary motor cortex
What is the region on the parietal lobe that receives somatic sensory information from touch, pressure, pain, vibration, etc.?
primary sensory cortex
What is the area that interprets and integrates incoming data to coordinate a motor response?
association areas
What is the cerebral cortex?
the outer edge 3 mm of the cerebrum where the interneurons are unmyelinated; where you have consciousness of sensory impulses and where you initiate voluntary skeletal muscle contractions; this is what makes you human
Name the three areas of the cerebral cortex and give the function of each.
sensory areas are located on all lobes that receive sensory information from the skin and sensory organs; motor areas are located on the frontal lobes and send out voluntary muscle commands; association areas integrate, interpret, analyze and store memory and then retrieves the information to try to decide what to do with it
What is the second largest part of the brain?
cerebellum
What are its functions?
balance, posture, muscle tone, mediates subconscious contractions of skeletal muscles for smooth coordination of skeletal muscles
How are the messages sent from the cerebrum to the cerebellum to carry out the functions of the cerebellum?
First – the cerebral cortex (primary motor cortex) sends a message to the skeletal muscle and tells it what to do and at the same time sends the same message to the cerebellum and tells the cerebellum what the muscle is suppose to do Second – the cerebellum receives sensory impulses from proprioreceptors about what the muscle is actually doing (to tell if it is carrying out the actual motor command) Third – if the muscle is not carrying out the exact motor command, then the cerebellum sends a message to the cerebrum and tells the cerebrum that the muscle is not carrying out the initial command so it can send another to smooth out the action of the initial command
What are the two parts of the diencephalon?
thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the function of the thalamus?
relay station
List the functions of the hypothalamus.
thirst center, temperature center, hunger center, sex center, and it connects the nervous system with the endocrine system
Name the parts of the brain stem from superior to inferior.
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What is the function of the midbrain?
reflex center for auditory and visual stimuli
What is the function of the pons?
it is a bridge, it transmits nervous impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and from the cerebrum to the brain stem
Where does crossing over occur?
medulla oblongata
What three centers are located in the medulla oblongata and what do they control?
cardiac center – controls heart rate; respiratory center – controls respiratory rate; vasomotor center – controls blood pressure
What is the “emotional brain”?
limbic system
What are the nerve fibers in the brain stem that activate the cerebral cortex?
reticular formation
If reticular formation decreases in activity, what results?
sleep
If the reticular formation ceases to function, what results?
coma
Can the cerebral cortex activate the reticular formation? What results?
yes; wakes you up in the middle of the night and then you can not go back to sleep
The spinal cord consists of gray and white matter. Where does integration of reflexes occur?
gray mater
Where are the ascending and descending tracts located?
white mater
What tracts carry sensory information toward the brain?
ascending tracts
What tracts carry motor information away from the brain?
descending tracts
What is a bundle of axons located in the CNS?
tracts
Which roots contain axons of motor neurons?
ventral roots
Which roots contain cell bodies of sensory neurons?
dorsal root ganglion
Describe the pathway of an ascending sensory tract starting with the stimulus and ending with perception.
receptor to sensory neuron to interneuron with crossing over occurring in the medulla oblongata then to the thalamus to the sensory cortex where conscious perception of the stimulus occurs
What is the tapered, conical end of the spinal cord called?
medullary cone (conus medullaris)
What is the long ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal segments L2 to S5 called?
cauda equina
What is the epidural space?
adipose tissue and blood vessels that cushion the spinal cord between the vertebrae and the dura mater
What are the 2 principle functions of the spinal cord?
serve as the integrating center for spinal reflexes and conduct impulses up and down the CNS via ascending tracts and descending tracts
Which system is concerned with voluntary action of the skeletal muscles?

Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
SNS
Which system coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive functions?

Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Which system has only one motor neuron? Where does this neuron synapse?

Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
SNS; at the effector which is skeletal muscle
Which system has two motor neurons?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
What are these two motor neurons called?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
preganglionic motor neuron and postganglionic motor neuron
Where is the cell body of the preganglionic nerve fiber located?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
inside the spinal cord
Where does the pre and postganglionic nerve fiber synapse?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
in the sympathetic division it occurs at the synaptic trunk or the paravertebral ganglion in the parasympathetic division it occurs at the terminal ganglion near the effetor
Where does the axon of the postganglionic nerve go?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
to the effector – either cardiac muscle, smooth muscle or glands
In which system are the sensations consciously perceived?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
SNS
In which system is the sensory information not consciously perceived?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Which system contains cranial and spinal nerves?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
both SNS and ANS
Which system is divided into 2 principle division?
Somatic or Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Do these divisions usually have opposite effects?
yes
What are the 2 systems that make up the PNS?
ANS and SNS
Which system is concerned with consciously perceived sensations?
SNS
What are the effectors in the SNS?
skeletal muscles
How many motor neurons are in the SNS?
one
Which system is concerned with sensations that are not consciously perceived?
ANS
How many motor neurons are in the ANS?
two
What are the effectors in the ANS?
cardiac muscle, smooth muscles and glands
What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Which division is known as the thoracolumbar division?
sympathetic division
Which division is concerned with “fight or flight” situations?
sympathetic division
What does the sympathetic division stimulate and inhibit?
the sympathetic division stimulates heart rate, respiratory rate, the liver to convert glycogen to glucose, increases blood pressure and dilates the pupils; while it inhibits the GI tract, salivary glands, the urinary system and the reproductive system
In the sympathetic division, where do the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons synapse?
the sympathetic trunk or the paravertebral ganglion
Which neurotransmitter is usually released at the pre/postganglionic synapse in the sympathetic division?
acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is usually released at the postganglionic synapse?
epinephrine
Name the receptors on the effector membrane in the sympathetic division?
alpha and beta receptors
The adrenal medulla releases which hormones?
epinephrine
What effects do the hormones of question 197 have?
sustains the sympathetic effect
Which division is known as the craniosacral division?
parasympathetic division
Which division is concerned with rest and restore?
parasympathetic division
What does the parasympathetic division stimulate and inhibit?
the parasympathetic division stimulates the salivary glands to secrete and increases the GI tract movement, stimulates the urinary and reproductive systems; while it inhibits heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and causes the pupils to constrict and causes the liver to convert glucose to glycogen
In the parasympathetic division, where do the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons synapse?
terminal ganglion
Which neurotransmitter is released at the pre/postganglionic synapse?
acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitter is released at the postganglionic synapse?
acetylcholine
Which nerve provides 75% of the entire parasympathetic outflow?
vagus nerve
What are the receptors on the parasympathetic effectors?
nicotinic and muscarinic