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28 Cards in this Set

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What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
What are the parts of the central nervous system?
The brain and the spinal cord
what makes up the peripheral nervous system?
All the nerves located outside of the central nervous system
What part of the central nervous system controls the most functions of the body?
The brain, located in the skull
What is the spinal cord?
The thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system
What kind of neurons are in the brain?
The brain contains about 100 billion interneurons?
What 3 things protect the brain from injury?
(1) The skull, (2)three layers of connective tissue and (3)a watery fluid between the outermost layer and middle layer of connective tissue
What are the 3 main parts of the human brain?
The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
What is the function of the cerebrum?
interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles and carries out complex mental processes such as learning, remembering and making judgements.
What are the functions of each of the halves of the cerebrum?
The right half is associated with creativity and artistic ability. The left half is associated with mathematical skills and logical thinking.
What is the largest part of the brain?
The cerebrum. The cerebellum is the second largest part.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
it coordinates actions of muscles and helps to keep your balance
What is the function of the brainstem?
it controls involuntary actions such as breathing and your heartbeat.
What protects the spinal cord?
The vertebral column.
What is the function of the spinal cord?
it is the link between the brain and the peripheral nervous system.
What is the peripheral nervous system?
A network of nerves that branch out from the central nervous system to the rest of the body
How many pairs of nerves make up the peripheral nervous system?
43 pairs. 12 pairs originate in the brain and 31 pairs begin in the spinal cord
What are the spinal nerves?
The 31 pairs of nerves that begin in the spinal cord and leave the spinal cord between the verebrae
What kind of neurons make up spinal nerves?
Both sensory and motor neurons.
What are the functions of the two types of neurons in the spinal nerves?
The sensory neurons carry impulses from the body to the central nervous system. The motor neurons carry impulses from the central nervous system to the body.
What are the two groups of nerves in the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.
What do nerves in the somatic nervous system do?
control voluntary actions
What do nerves in the autonomic nervous system do?
control involuntary actions
What are reflexes?
An automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control
What is the difference between a reflex action and a voluntary action?
In a reflex, skeletal muscles contract with involvement of the spinal cord only, not the brain.
How do reflexes help protect the body from injury?
Because the reflex action occurs before the nerve impulses reach the brain, your body removes you from harm before the brain interprets the impulse.
What is a concussion?
A bruiselike injury of the brain that occurs when soft tissue of the cerebrum bumps against the skull
Why does a spinal cord injury sometimes result in paralysis?
If the spinal cord is cut, all the nerve axons in the region are split so that impulses cannot pass through them.