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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the PNS consist of?
All neuronal structures outside the CNS - including spinal nerves, cranial nerves and portions of the ANS.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
There are 31 pairs.
Where do the cranial nerves run through?
They start in the brainstem & pass through the foramina in the skull - serve the face and neck.
What are the two roots in the spinal nerves?
Ventral & Dorsal.
Whis root is efferent and which is afferent?
Ventral = efferent
Dorsal = afferent
What does efferent mean?
Deals w/sensory, directed away from the center - directed away from.
What is afferent?
Deals w/motor, proceeding toward a center.
What is a dermatome?
Map of the body - area of sensory skin - innervation by a specific spinal nerve.
How many pairs serve the face and neck?
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves - may consist of motor or sensory nerves or both.
What does the ANS (autonomic nervous system) do?
Controls involuntary function of the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands.
What are the two systems of the ANS?
What neurotransmitters are in the SNS?
Acetylcholine & Norepinephrine
What neurotransmitters are in the PNS?
Which system has the "fight or flight" response?
What are some effects of the SNS?
*Increase in strength of heartbeat & rate (B-receptors)
PAGE 1474 - look over
Where does the blood supply to the brain come from?
Internal carotid (front) and vertebral arteries (back).
Where does cerebral venous blood drain through?
It drains through the dural sinuses and into the jugular vein - then into superior vena cava....
The internal carotid artery divides into what two arteries?
Anterior and middle cerebral artery.
What is the Circle of Willis?
By the joining of the arteries in the "circle" - this gives opportunity for the brain to fluctuate any pressure/pressure accomodation. Acts as safety valve.
What do the vertebral arteris divide into?
Posterior arteries.
What is the blood-brain barrier?
A physiologic barrier between the capillaries and the brain tissue that protects the brain from harmful agents.
What drugs can enter the brain through this barrier?
Only certain drugs that are lipid soluble can enter through the barrier.
What are the three protective structures regarding the nervous system?
Vertebral column
What is the protective mechanism of the skull?
It protects the brain/nervous system from external trauma.
What do the meninges do?
Three layers of protective membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord.
What is the breakdown of the vertebral column?
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal.
What are some effects on the nervous system due to aging?
Vulnerable to orthostatic hypotension, hyper/hypothermia, decr. memory, vision, hearing, taste, smell, position sense, muscle tone and reaction time. Increased interrupted sleep, insomnias and spontaneous awakening.
What is apraxia?
Inability to perform learned movements, defect in motor planning. Caused by cerebral cortex lesion.
What is aphasia?
Loss of comprehension and use of language.
What is ataxia?
Lack of coordination and movement (such as staggering gait and imbalance).
What is diplopia?
Double vision.
What is dysarthria?
Lack of coordination in articulating speech.
What is dyskinesia?
Impairment of power to execute voluntary movement resulting in fragmentary or incomplete movements.
What is dysphagia?
Difficulty in swallowing.
What is homonymous hemianopsia?
Loss of vision in one side of visual field.
What does the arterior frontal lobe control?
It controls high order processes - judgment, insight, reasoning, problem solving, planning and personality.
What does the posterior temporal lobe control?
It integrates visual and auditory inputs for language comprehension and past experiences.
Describe lumbar puncture:
CSF is aspirated by needle insertion to assess the fluid.
Describe x-rays for the nervous system:
X-rays are done on skull & spinal cord to detect fractures.
Describe CT-scan:
Detects problems such as hemorrhage and tumors.
Describe MRI:
Detects multiple sclerosis and other dx. - uses magnetic energy - imaging.
Describe MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy):
Used for CVA's - similar to MRI.
Describe myelogram?
x-ray of spinal cord after injection of contrast medium into subarachnoid space. (check allergies)
Describe ultrasounds?
Carotid duplex studies - soundwaves determine blood flow velocity which indicates presence of occlusion vascular disease.