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60 Cards in this Set

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What does intracranial pressure result from?
Intracranial pressure results from an increase in components of the brain causing cerebral edema.
What are some causes of cerebral edema?
Head trama, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, tumor, inflammation, tissue damage.
What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
It is used to assess the degree of impairment in a comatose patient - level of consciousness.
What is a coma?
The inability of a patient to speak, obey commands, or open the eyes when a verbal or painful stimulus is applied.
What is bacterial meningitis?
Acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane.
How does the bacteria from bacterial meningitis gain entry to the body?
It gains entry through the upper respiratory system (often occurs after URI)or bloodstream.
What are the common types of bacteria for bacterial meningitis?
Streptococcus pneumoniae & Neisseria meningitis.
What are some other indications of bacterial meningitis?
CSF is slightly increased, ICP is somewhat increased due to increased CSF and inflammation.
Name some clinical manifestations of bacerial meningitis:
Fever, severe headache, vomiting, nuchal rigidity. May also have photophobia and decreased LOC.
What are some clinical manifestations of bacterial meningitis and pediatrics?
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, in infants - the anterior fontanel may be flat or bulging.
Which diagnostic study will confirm the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis?
The lumbar puncture.
What are the diagnostic studies for bacterial meningitis?
Blood culture, CBC, CT scan, MRI.
What will cerebral fluid contain if a patient has bacterial meningitis?
Increased protein, decreased glucose, PUS and bacteria.
What is some nursing management for bacterial meningitis?
VS, neuro eval (eyes, grips), skin, codeine and position for head and neck pain (HOB up), low lighting.
Why would a nurse manage a patients fever for bacterial meningitis?
To prevent chance of fever.
Can viral meningitis be treated with antibiotics?
No, Viral meningitis is caused by a virus.
What are the manifestations of viral meningitis?
Headache, fever, photophobia, stiff neck.
How is viral meningitis diagnosed?
Lumbar puncture.
Describe the CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) for a patient w/viral meningitis:
CLEAR, w/normal to low glucose, slight increase in protein and some lymphocytes.
How do you treat viral meningitis?
Disease is self-limiting, treat for sx's, inflammation - mostly wait for it to resolve, expect full recovery.
What is Encephalitis?
An acute inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a virus.
What are symptoms of Encephalitis?
Fever, headache, N/V.
In children - symptoms are more pronounced, fever w/neurological changes most commonly seen.
Why is a the CSF analyzed when diagnosing Encephalitis?
To rule out bacterial meningitis.
What are some treatments for Encephalitis?
Diuretics and steroids to control cerebral edema, supportive care.
What is a brain abscess?
Localized accumulation of pus in the brain.
What are the primary causes of brain abscess?
Infections from ear, tooth, mastoid and sinuses.
What are the manifestations of a brain abscess?
Headache, fever, nausea and vomiting.
What are the ICP symptoms of a brain abscess?
Drowsiness, confusion, SEIZURE.
What are the diagnostice studies and treatment of a brain abscess?
CT, MRI.
Antibiotics, possibly drainage.
Describe some nursing care for a brain abscess:
Assess for signs of ICP - change in LOC, HA, pupil inequality, maintain a patent airway, fluid & electrolytes, be careful not to MASK changes when using sedatives, position HOB up 30 degrees, short explanations, family to calm.
What does intracranial pressure result from?
Intracranial pressure results from an increase in components of the brain causing cerebral edema.
What are some causes of cerebral edema?
Head trama, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, tumor, inflammation, tissue damage.
What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
It is used to assess the degree of impairment in a comatose patient - level of consciousness.
What is a coma?
The inability of a patient to speak, obey commands, or open the eyes when a verbal or painful stimulus is applied.
What is bacterial meningitis?
Acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane.
How does the bacteria from bacterial meningitis gain entry to the body?
It gains entry through the upper respiratory system (often occurs after URI)or bloodstream.
What are the common types of bacteria for bacterial meningitis?
Streptococcus pneumoniae & Neisseria meningitis.
What are some other indications of bacterial meningitis?
CSF is slightly increased, ICP is somewhat increased due to increased CSF and inflammation.
Name some clinical manifestations of bacerial meningitis:
Fever, severe headache, vomiting, nuchal rigidity. May also have photophobia and decreased LOC.
What are some clinical manifestations of bacterial meningitis and pediatrics?
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, in infants - the anterior fontanel may be flat or bulging.
Which diagnostic study will confirm the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis?
The lumbar puncture.
What are the diagnostic studies for bacterial meningitis?
Blood culture, CBC, CT scan, MRI.
What will cerebral fluid contain if a patient has bacterial meningitis?
Increased protein, decreased glucose, PUS and bacteria.
What is some nursing management for bacterial meningitis?
VS, neuro eval (eyes, grips), skin, codeine and position for head and neck pain (HOB up), low lighting.
Why would a nurse manage a patients fever for bacterial meningitis?
To prevent chance of fever.
Can viral meningitis be treated with antibiotics?
No, Viral meningitis is caused by a virus.
What are the manifestations of viral meningitis?
Headache, fever, photophobia, stiff neck.
How is viral meningitis diagnosed?
Lumbar puncture.
Describe the CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) for a patient w/viral meningitis:
CLEAR, w/normal to low glucose, slight increase in protein and some lymphocytes.
How do you treat viral meningitis?
Disease is self-limiting, treat for sx's, inflammation - mostly wait for it to resolve, expect full recovery.
What is Encephalitis?
An acute inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a virus.
What are symptoms of Encephalitis?
Fever, headache, N/V.
In children - symptoms are more pronounced, fever w/neurological changes most commonly seen.
Why is a the CSF analyzed when diagnosing Encephalitis?
To rule out bacterial meningitis.
What are some treatments for Encephalitis?
Diuretics and steroids to control cerebral edema, supportive care.
What is a brain abscess?
Localized accumulation of pus in the brain.
What are the primary causes of brain abscess?
Infections from ear, tooth, mastoid and sinuses.
What are the manifestations of a brain abscess?
Headache, fever, nausea and vomiting.
What are the ICP symptoms of a brain abscess?
Drowsiness, confusion, SEIZURE.
What are the diagnostice studies and treatment of a brain abscess?
CT, MRI.
Antibiotics, possibly drainage.
Describe some nursing care for a brain abscess:
Assess for signs of ICP - change in LOC, HA, pupil inequality, maintain a patent airway, fluid & electrolytes, be careful not to MASK changes when using sedatives, position HOB up 30 degrees, short explanations, family to calm.