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___________ CONSISTS OF THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
CNS
THE _________ CONNECTS THE BRAIN TO THE SPINAL CORD.
BRAINSTEM
__________ PROVIDES COMMUNICATION BY WAY OF THE SPINAL CORD
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PNS
________ IS THE MEMBRANES OF CNS. PROTECTS CNS
MENINGES
NAME THE THREE LAYERS OF MENINGES.
DURA MATER, ARACHNOID MATER, PIA MATER
CNS
TOUGH MOTHER VENOUS SINUS AND IS ON SHEEP BRAIN.
DURA MATER
SPIDERWEB-LIKE AND SPACE CONTAINS CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
ARACHNOID MATER
CSF
FAITHFUL MOTHER AND ENCAPSULATES BLOOD VESSELS.
PIA MATER
HOW MANY VENTRICLES ARE CONTINUOUS WITH THE CENTRAL CANAL OF THE SPINAL CORD
FOUR VENTRICLES
VENTRICLES ARE FILLED WITH WHAT FLUID.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
CSF
NAME FOUR VENTRICLES.
LATERAL VENTRICLES (2) AND THIRD & FOURTH VENTRICLE
WHAT IS KEY FUNCTION?
MAINTAIN STABLE ION CONCENTRATIONS IN CNS ALONG WITH NUTRITIVE AND PROTECTIVE
BRAIN ELECTROLYTES
SLENDER COLUMN OF _______ ________ CONTINUOUS WITH BRAN AND BRAINSTEM EXTENDS DOWNWARD THROUGH VERTEBRAL CANAL.
NERVOUS TISSUE
_______ FEED ARMS
CERVICAL ENLARGEMENT
_________ FEEDS LEGS
LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT
NAME THE PARTS OF THE GRAY MATTER
POSTERIOR, ANTERIOR AND LATERAL HORN
NAME THE PARTS OF THE WHITE MATTER
POSTERIOR FUNICULUS AND LATERAL FUNICULUS
FUNCTION OF SPINAL CORD
CONDUIT FOR NERVE IMPULSES TO AND FROM THE BRAIN AND BRAINSTEM
CONDUIT
FUNCTION OF SPINAL CORD
CENTER FOR SPINAL REFLEXES
REFLEXES
MIDDLE OF GRAY MATTER
GRAY COMMISSURE AND CENTRAL CANAL
WHAT ARE REFLEXES
AUTOMATIC, SUBCONSCIOUS, RESPONSES TO STIMULI
SIMPLE REFLEX ARC
SENSORY MOTOR
COMMON REFLEX ARE ________ ___________ ________
SENSORY ASSOCIATION MOTOR
SENSORY IS __________ NEURON
AFFERENT NEURON
MOTOR IS __________ NEURON
EFFERENT NEURON
MENINGES OF THE SPINAL CORD
EPICURAL SPACE-FILLED IN WITH TISSUES FORMING A PROTECTIVE PAD AROUND THE CORD, BETWEEN THE DURAL SHEATH AND BONE OF THE VERTEBRA
VENTRICLES
-INTERCONNECTED CAVITIES
-IN CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES AND BRAINSTEM
-FILLED WITH CSF, CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
-TWO LATERAL VENTRICLES
-3RD VENTRICLE
-4TH VENTRICLE
RESTING POTENTIAL
-INSIDE IS NEGATIVE RELATIVE TO THE OUTSIDE-7mv
-POLARIZED MEMBRANE-DUE TO DISTRIBUTION OF IONS
-K+/K+ PUMP
DIVERGENCE
-ONE NEURON SENDS IMPULSES TO SEVERAL NEURONS
-CAN AMPLIFY AN IMPULSE
-IMPULSE FROM A SINGLE NEURON IN CNS MAY BE AMPLIFIED TO ACTIVATE ENOUGH MOTOR UNITS NEEDED FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
IMPULSE PROCESSING CONVERGENCE
-NEURON RECEIVES INPUT FROM SEVERAL NEURONS
-INCOMING IMPULSES REPRESENT INFO FROM DIFFERENCT TYPES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS
-ALLOWS NERVOUS SYSTEM TO COLLECT, PROCESS, AND RESPOND TO INFORMATION
-MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR A NEURON TO SAM IMPULSE FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
SPINAL CORD STRUCTURE
-EXTENDS FROM FORAMEN MAGNUM TO 2ND LUMBAR VERTEBRA
-31 SEGMENTS W/PAIRS OF SPINAL NERVES
-CERVICAL ENLARGEMENT-LARGEST TO SUPPORT UPPER LIMBS
-LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT- SUPPORTS LOWER LIMBS
-CONUS MEDULLARIS
-FILUM TERMINALE
-CAUDA EQUINA
SPINAL CORD FUNCTION
-REFLEX CENTER
-CONDUCTS IMPULSES TO AND FROM THE BRAIN
REFLEXES
-AUTOMATIC, SUBCONSCIOUS RESPONSE TO STIMULI
-SIMPLEST NERVE PATHWAYS, ONLY FEW NEURONS INVOLVED
SPINAL REFLEX ARC
1. RECEPTOR
2. SENSORY NEURON
3. INTEGRATION WITHIN CNS INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE SYNAPSE
4. MOTOR NEURON
5. AN EFFECTOR
KNEE JERK REFLEX
-HELPS MAINTAIN POSTURE
-MINIMUM NUMBER OF NEURONS REQUIRED
-SENSORY AND MOTOR NEURONS
-SINGLE SYNAPSE IN SPINAL CORD
WITHDRAWAL REFLEX
-PROTECTIVE
-SENSORY, INTER AND MOTOR NEURONS
CROSSED-EXTENSOR REFLEX
-FLOOR MUSCLE ON ONE SIDE IS STIMULATED TO CONTRACT IN A WITHDRAW REFLEX
-EXTENSOR MUSCLE ON OPPOSITE SIDE CONTRACT TO MAINTAIN BALANCE
ASCENDING
-SPINAL CORD TRACTS THAT CONDUCT SENSORY IMPULSES TO THE BRAIN
DESENDING
SPINAL CORD TRACTS CONDUCT MOTOR IMPULSES FROM THE BRAIN TO MOTOR NEURONS REACHING MUSCLES AND GLANDS
BRAIN MAJORS PARTS
CEREBRUM-2 HEMISPHERES
DIENCEPHALON
BRAIN STEM
CEREBELLUM
CEREBRUM
-LARGE PART OF BRAIN
-MOST ANTERIOR PART OF BRAIN
-RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS
CORPUS CALLOSUM
CONNECTS HEMISPHERES OF CEREBRUM
CONVOLUTIONS
BUMPS OR GYRI OF CEREBRUM
SULCI
GROOVES OF CEREBRUM
LONGITUDINAL FISSURE
SEPARATES HEMISPHERES OF CEREBRUM
TRANSVERSE FISSURE
SEPARATES CEREBRUM FORM CEREBELLUM
LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM
-FRONTAL
-PARIETAL
-TEMPORAL
-OCCIPITAL
-INSULA

*CENTRAL SULCUS
*LATERAL SULCUS
FUNCTION OF CEREBRUM
-INTEPRETING SENSORY IMPULSES FROM THE SENSE ORGANS, HEARING, VISION, TOUCH , TASTE, TEMP.
-INITIATING VOLUNTARY MUSCLE MOVEMENTS
-STORING INFOR AS MEMORIES
-UTILIZES INFO IN REASONING
-CENTER FOR INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY
CEREBRAL CORTEX
-THIN LAYER OF GRAY MATTER THAT CONSTITUTES THE OUTERMOST PORTIOINS OF CEREBRUM
-CONTAINS 75% OF ALL NEURONS IN NERVOUS SYSTEM
CUTANEOUS SENSORY AREA
-PARIETAL LOBE
-INTERPRETS SENSATIONS ON SKIN

EX: TEMP, TOUCH, PRESSURE, PAIN
CEREBRAL CORTEX
-THIN LAYER OF GRAY MATTER THAT CONSTITUTES THE OUTERMOST PORTIOINS OF CEREBRUM
-CONTAINS 75% OF ALL NEURONS IN NERVOUS SYSTEM
VISUAL AREA
-SENSORY AREA
-OCCIPITAL LOBE
-INTERPRETS VISIONS
SENSORY SPEECH
(WERNICKE'S AREA)
-MOSTLY ON LEFT HEMISPHERE
-RECEIVES AND RELAYS INPUT FROM THE VISUAL CORTEX AND AUDITORY CORTEX
-IMPORTANT FOR UNDERSTANDING WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE
ASSOCIATION AREAS
-LINK SENSORY AND MOTOR AREAS
-WIDESPREAD THROUGHOUT THE CEREBRAL CORTEX
-ANALYZE AND INTERPRET SENSORY EXPERIENCES
-PROVIDE MEMORY, REASONING, LANGUAGE, JUDGEMENT, EMOTIONS, PERSONALITY
FRONTAL LOBE ASSOCIATION AREAS
-CONCENTRATING
-PLANNING
-PROBLEM SOLVING
-JUDGING
PARIETAL LOBE ASSOCIATION AREAS
-UNDERSTANDING SPEECH
-USING WORDS TO EXPRESS THOUGHT
TEMPORAL LOBE ASSOCIATION AREAS
-REMEMBER VISUAL SCENES
-REMEMBER MUSIC
-REMEMBER COMPLEX PATTERNS
OCCIPITAL LOBE ASSOCIATION AREAS
COMBINE VISUAL IMAGES WITH OTHER SENSORY EXPERIENCES
PRIMARY MOTOR AREAS
-FRONTAL LOBES
-CONTROL VOLUNTARY MUSCLES
BROCA'S AREA
-MOTOR SPEECH AREA
-ANTERIOR TO PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
-USUALLY IN ONE HEMISPHERE
-CONTROLLS MUSCLES NEEEDED FOR SPEECH
FRONTAL EYE FIELD
-ABOVE BROCA'S AREA
-CONTROLS VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS OF EYES AND EYELIDS
HEMISPHERE DOMINANCE
IN OVER 90% OF POPULATION, LEFT HEMISPHER IS DOMINANT
DOMINATE HEMISPHERE CONTROLS
SPEECH, WRITING, READING, VERBAL SKILLS, ANALYTICAL SKILLS, COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS
NONDOMINANT HEMISPHERE CONTROLS
-NONVERBAL TASKS
-MOTOR TASKS
-UNDERSTANDING AND INTERPRETING MUSICALAND VISUAL PATTERNS
-PROVIDES EMOTIONAL AND INTUITIVE THOUGHT PROCESSES
SHORT TERM MEMORY
-WORKING MEMORY
-CLOSED CIRCUIT
-CIRCUIT IS STIMULATED OVER AND OVER
-WHEN IMPULSE FLOW STOPS MEMORY DISAPPEARS
LONG TERM MEMORY
CHANGES STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF NEURONS
-ENHANCED SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
HIPPOCAMPUS
WHERE THOUGHTS FORM IN PART OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
BASAL NUCLEI
-MASSES OF GRAY MATTER
-DEEP WITHIN CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
-PRODUCE DOPAMINE
-CONTROL CERTAIN MUSCULAR ACTIVITIES
-INTERACT W/ OTHER BRAIN AREAS TO FACILITATE VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
-CONSIST OF:
CAUDATE NUCLEUS PUTAMEN
GLOBUS PALLIDUS
DIENCEPHALON
-BETWEEN BRAIN AND BETWEEN CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES AND BRAINSTEM
-SURROUNDS 3RD VENTRICLE
-COMPOSED LARGELY OF GRAY MATTER
-CONSISTS OF THALAMUS AND HYPOTHALAMUS
-THALAMUS SELECTS INCOMING SENSORY IMPULSES AND RELAYS TO CEREBRAL CORTEX
-HYPOTHALAMUS IMPORTANT TO MAINTENANCING HOMESTASIS
-LIMBIC SYSTEM PRODUCES EMOTION AND MODIFIES BEHAVIOR
-ASSOCIATED WITH: OPTIC CHIASMA, INFUNDIBULUM, POSTERIOR PITUITARY, MAMMILLARY BODIES, PINEAL GLAND
THALAMUS
-TWO OVAL MASSES THAT BULGE FROM SIDE OF THIRD VENTRICLE
-GREAT RELAY STATION OF THE BRAIN
-RECEIVEDS ALL SENSORY IMPULSES (EXCEPT SMELL)
-CHANNELS IMPULSES TO APPROPRIATE PART OF CEREBRAL CORTEX FOR INTERPRETATION
HYPOTHALAMUS
-FLOOR AND LOWER SIDE WALLS OF THIRD VENTRICLE
-MAINTAINS HOMEOSTATIS BY REGULATING VISCERAL ACTIVITIES
-LINKS NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
-REGULATE THE FOLLOWING:
-HEART RATE AND ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
-BODY TEMP, H20 AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
-CONTROLS HUNGER AND BODY WEIGHT, SLEEP/WAKEFULNESS
-CONTROLS MOVEMENT AND GLANDULAR SECRETIONS OF STOMACH AND INTESTINE, PRODUCES NEUROSECRETORY SUBSTANCES (HORMONES) THAT CONTROL THE PITUITARY.
LIMBIC SYSTEM
-CONSISTS OF PARTS OF THE CEREBRUM AND DIENCEPHALON
-CONTROLS EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES AND EXPRESSION
-CAN MODIFY THE WAYS A PERSON ACTS
-PRODUCES FEELINGS OF FEAR, ANGER, PLEASURE AND SORROW
-PARTS OF SYSTEM INTERPRETS FROM THE OLFACTORY RECEPTORS
THREE PARTS OF BRAIN STEM
-MIDBRAIN
-PONS
-MEDULLA OBLONGATA
OLFACTORY-1
-SENSE OF SMELL
-SENSORY FIBERS IMPULSES ASSOCIATED WITH SENSE OF SMELL
SENSORY
OPTIC-II
-SENSE OF VISION-
-SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SENSE OF VISION
SENSORY
OCULOMOTOR-III
-PRIMARY MOTOR
-MOTOR FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES TO MUSCLES THAT RAISE THE EYELIDS, MOVE THE EYES, ADJUST LIGHT ENTERING THE EYES, AND FOCUS THE LENS.

-SOME SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES ASSOCIATED W/ PROPRIOCEPTORS
PRIMARY MOTOR
TROCHLEAR-IV
-PRIMARILY MOTOR
-SMALLEST NERVE-TERM MEANS PULLEY-MOTOR FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES TO SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE EYES.

-SOME SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES ASSOCIATED WITH PROPRIOCEPTORS
PRIMARILY MOTOR-
TRIGEMINAL-V
-MIXED
-OPTHALMIC DIVISION-SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES FROM THE SURFACES OF THE EYES, TEAR GLANDS, SCALP, FOREHEAD AND UPPER LIDS
-MAXILLARY DIVISION-SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES FROM THE UPPER TEETH, UPPER GUM, UPPER LIP, LINING OF THE PALATE, AND SKIN OF THE FACE
-MANDIBULAR DIVISION-SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES ASSOCIATED WITH SCALP, SKIN OF JAW, LOWER TEETH, LOWER GUMS, LOWER LIP.
-MOTOR MUSCLES OF MASTICATION AND MUSCLES OF FLOOR OF MOUTH.
MIXED
ABDUCENS-VI
-PRIMARILY MOTOR
-MOTOR FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES TO MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE EYES
-INNERVATES LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE THAT ABDUCES THE EYE LATERALLY

-SOME SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPUSES ASSOCIATED WITH PROPRIOCEPTORS
PRIMARILY MOTOR
FACIAL-VII
-MIXED
-SENSORY FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES ASSOCIATED WITH TASTE RECEPTORS OF THE ANTERIOR TONGUE
-MOTOR FIBERS TRANSMIT IMPULSES TO MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION, TEAR GLANDS, AND SALIVARY GLANDS
MIXED
VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR-VIII
-SENSORY
-VESTIBULAR BRANCH-SENSORY FROM EQUILIBRIUM-RECEPTORS OF EARS
-COCHLEAR BRANCH-SENSORY WITH HEARING RECEPTORS
SENSORY
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL-IX
-MIXED
-SENSORY PHARYNX, TONSILS, TONGUE, AND CAROTID ARTERIES.
-MOTOR TO SALIVARY GLANDS AND MUSCLES OF PHARYNX USED IN SWALLOWING.
MIXED
D. SPINAL NERVES
-MIXED NERVES
-31 PAIRS
-8 CERVICAL
-12 THORACIC
-5 LUMBAR
-5 SACRAL
-1 COCCYGEAL
VAGUS-X
-MIXED
-NAME MEANS WANDER
-ONLY CRANIAL NERVE TO EXTEND INTO THORAX
-SOMATIC MOTOR TO MUSCLES OF SPEECH AND SWALLOWING
-AUTONOMIC MOTOR TO VISCERA OF THE THORAX AND ABDOMEN.
-SENSORY FROM PHARYNX, LARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, AND VISCERA OF THORAX AND ABDOMEN.
MIXED
ACCESSORY-XI
-PRIMARY MOTOR
-MOTOR TO MUSCLES OF SOFT PALATE, PHARYNX, AND LARYNX, NECK AND BACK.
-SOME PROPRIOCEPTORS INPUT.
PRIMARILY MOTOR
HYPOGLOSSAL-XII
-PRIMARILY MOTOR
-MOTOR TO MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE TONGUE
-SOME PROPRIOCEPTOR INPUT
PRIMARILY MOTOR
BRAINSTEM
-EXTENDS FROM BASE OF BRAIN TO SPINAL CORD
-CONSISTS OF MIDBRAIN, PONS, AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA
MIDBRAIN
-CONTAINS REFLEX CENTERS ASSOC W/EYES AND HEAD MOVEMENT
-MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS
-CEREBRAL AQUEDUCTS CONNECTS THIRD AND FOURTH VENTRICLES
-CONTAINS CERBRAL PEDUNCLES COMPRISE TWO PROMINENT BUNDLES OF NERVE FIBERS
-CONTAINS CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA-FOUR NUCLEI
-CONTAINS RED NUCLEUS THAT MAINTAIN POSTURE IN CONJ W/CEREBELLUM
PONS
-ROUNDED BULGE SEPARATES MIDBRAIN FROM MEDULLA OBLONGATA
-CONSISTS OF LONGITUDINAL NERVE FIBERS
-RELAYS IMPULSES TO AND FROM MEDULLA OBLONGATATA AND CEREBRUM
-TRANSVERSE NERVE FIBERS RELAY IMPULSE FROM CEREBRUM TO CEREBELLUM
-RELAY SENSORY IMPULSES FROM PERIPHERAL NERVES TO BRAIN CENTER
-FUNCTIONS W.MEDULLA OBLONGATA TO MAINTAIN BASIC RHYTHM OF BREATHING(RATE AND DEPTH)
-
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
-ASCENDING AND DESCENDING TRACTS BETWEEN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
-ENLARGED CONTINUATION OF SPINAL CORD
-OLIVE, OVAL SWELLING ON EITHER SIDE, BUNDLE OF NERVE FIBERS PASS TO CEREBELLUM
-REFLEX CENTER
-CENTER FOR NONVITAL REFLEXES SUCH AS COUGHING, SNEEZING, SWALLOWING, AND VOMITING
-RETICULAR FORMATION FILTERS SENSORY IMPULSES
-AROUSES CEREBRAL CORTEX INTO WAKEFULNESS
-DECREASED ACTIVITY OF RETICULAR FORMATION PROVIDES FOR NORMAL SLEEP
RETICULAR FORMATION
-SCATTERED THROUGH OUT MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PONS, AND MIDBRAIN
-COMPLEX NERVE FIBERS
-FILTERS INCOMING SENSORY IMPULSES
-IF INJURED OR CEASES TO FUNCTION RESULT IN UNCONSCIOUS COMATOSE STATE
-REGULATES MOTOR ACTIVITY TO MUSCLE SKELETAL SYSTEM
-CEREBRAL CORTEX CAN ACTIVATE
-INHIBITS OR ENHANCES SPINAL REFLEXES
WHAT OTHER VITAL VISERAL ACTIVITIES ARE CONTROLLED BY THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
-CARDIAC CENTER-SENDSPERIPHERAL NERVE IMPULSES TO HEART TO INCREASE OR DECREASE HEART RATE
-VASOMOTOR CENTER-INTIATES IMPULSES TRAVEL TO SMOOTH MUSCLE IN WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS
-VASOCONSTRICTION STIMULATES BLOOD VESSELS TO CONTRACT CONSTRICTING TO INCREASE THE BLOOD PRESSURE
-VASODILATION IS A DECREASE IN THE ACTIVITY OF THESE CELLS TO DILATION OF THE BLOOD VESSELS RESULTING IN A DROP IN BLOOD PRESSURE
-RESPIRATORY CENTER ADJUSTS THE RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING IN CONJUNCT W/PONS TO MAIN BASIC RHYTHM OF BREATHING
NAME TWO TYPES OF SLEEP.
SLOW WAVE AND RAPID EYE MOVEMENT(REM)
SLOW-WAVE SLEEP
-OCCURS WHEN PERSON IS VERY TIRED
-REFLECTS DECREASING ACTIVITY OF RETICULAR INFORMATION
-LASTS 70-90 MINUTES
-RANGES FROM LIGHT TO HEAVY
-OCCURS IN FOUR STAGES
-SLOW-WAVE AND REM SLEEP OFTEN ALTERNATES
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP OR REM
-CALL PARADOXICAL SLEEP AS SOME AREAS OF BRAIN ARE ACTIVE
-RAPID MOVEMENT OF EYELIDS
-OCCURS IN DOGS AND CATS RESULTS IN LIMB TWITCH
-LAST 5 TO 15 MINUTES
-DREAM SLEEP
-DURING REM HEART AND RESPIRATION R IRREGULAR
-PERSON CAN MAKE UP REM NEXT NIGHT IF FAIL TO ACHIEVE ON A NIGHT
SLEEP DISORDERS
-FATAL FAMILIAL INSOMNIA
-INSOMNIA
-NARCOLEPSY
-OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEPY SYNDROME
-PARASOMNIAS
-REM-SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER
-RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME
-SLEEP PARALYSIS
CEREBELLUM
-TWO HEMISPHERES CONNECTED BY VERMIS
-PRIMARILY COMPOSED OF WHITE MATTER W/THIN LAYER OF GRAY MATTER AKA CEREBELLAR CORTEX
-ARBOR VITAE LOCATED ON THE SURFACE OF THE CORTEX
-CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES NERVE FIBER TRACTS
-INTEGRATES SENSORY INFORMATION CONCERNING POSITION OF BODY PARTS
-COORDINATES SKELETAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY
-MAINTAIN POSTURE
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
-NERVES THAT BRANCH FROM CNS CONNECTING IT TO THE OTHER BODY PARTS IS KNOWN AS PNS
CRANIAL NERVES-ARISING FROM THE BRAIN
-Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles
- Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera
-OVERSEES CONSCIOUS ACTIVITIES
SPINAL NERVES-ARISING FROM SPINAL CORD
-Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles
-Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera
-CONTROLS SUBCONSCIOUS ACTIVITY
GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS
-carry motor impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS
-carry sensory impulses to CNS from skin and skeletal muscles
GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT FIBERS
-carry motor impulses away from CNS to smooth muscles and glands
GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS-
-carry sensory impulses to CNS from blood vessels and internal organs
SENSORY NERVES
-conduct impulses into CNS
MOTOR NERVES
conduct impulses to muscles or glands
HOW MANY PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES? WHERE DO THEY ORIGINATE FROM?
12 PAIRS WITH ALL BUT THE FIRST PAIR ORIGINATING FROM THE BRAIN STEM
MIXED NERVES
- contain both sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers; most nerves
SPECIAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS
-carry motor impulses from brain to muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressions
SPECIAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS
-carry sensory impulses to brain from olfactory and taste receptors
SPECIAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS
-carry sensory impulses to brain from RECEPTORS OF SIGHT, HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM
HOW ARE SPINAL NERVES GROUPED?
SPINAL NERVES ARE GROUPED BY THE LEVEL FROM WHICH THEY ARISE.
WHAT IS A DERMATONE?
an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate
DESCRIBE HOW A SPINAL NERVE EMERGIES FROM THE SPINAL CORD.
FOR EACH NERVE THERE IS A VERTEBRA WITH A VERTEBRAL NOTCH WITH A INVERTEBRAL FORAMEN. NERVE FOR C-1 PASSES ABOVE THE VERTEBRAE AND THE OTHER FLOW THROUGH EACH VERTEBRAE.
WHAT IS THE CAUDA EQUINA?
KNOWN AS THE HORSE'S TAIL. THE SPINAL CORD IN AN ADULT DOES NOT GROW SO THE LUMBAR, SACRAL AND COCCYXL
DORAL ROOT
-AXONS OF SENSORY NEURONS IN THE DORSAL ROOT GANGLION
DORSAL ROOT GANGLION
-CELL BODIES OF SENSORY NEURONS
VENTRAL ROOT
-AXONS OF MOTOR NEURONS WHOSE CELL BODIES ARE IN SPINAL CORD
Objective vertigo vs
subjective vertigo.
What causes vertigo?
-room spins, you are spinning
-neruological disease in vestibular apparatus in ear, or in vestibular nuclei in brain stem.
Explain the autonomic nervous system & divide into two.
-PNS composed of cranial & spinal nerves, which are divided
into somatic(voluntary;skeletal) and
autonomic(involuntary;smooth muscle, cardiac,glands)
-MAINTAINS HOMESTASIS
What condition might hyperreflexia occur with?
Hyporeflexia?
-upper motor neuron lesion(brain attack)
– spinal cord injury
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE DIVISION
PREPARES BODY FOR RESTING AND DIGESTING ACTIVITIES
AUTONOMIC NERVE DIVISION-
-PREGANGLIONIC
-POSTGANGLIONIC
-TWO NEURONS FOR EACH PULSE
-ALL ARE MOTOR (EFFERENT)
PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS
-AXONS ARE PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS
-NEURON CELL BODIES IN CNS
POSTGANAGLIONIC FIBERS
-TWO NEURONS FOR EACH IMPULSE
-ALL ARE MOTOR (EFFERENT)
-AXONS OF POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS
-NEURON CELL BODIES IN GANGLIA
SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
-THORACOLUMBAR DIVISION
-ARISE FROM THE THORACIC AND LUMBAR PART OF SPINAL CORD
-SHORT PREGANGLIONIC FIBER
-LONG POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS
-EXCEPTION TO 2 NEURON RULE-ADRENAL MEDULLA
SYMAPATHETIC DIVISION
-PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS LEAVE SPINAL NERVES
-THROUGH WHITE RAMI AND ENTER PARAVERTEBRAL GANGLIA
-PARAVERTERBRAL GANGLIA AND FIBERS CONNECT THEM AND MAKE UP THE SYMPATHETIC TRUNK
SYMPATHETIC DIVISION-POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS
-EXTEND FROM SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA TO VISCERAL ORGANS
-PASS THROUGH GRAY RAMI AND RETURN TO A SPINAL NERVE BEFORE PROCEEDING TO AN EFFECTOR
PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
-CRANIOSACRAL DIVISION-LOCAL OF PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS
-GANGLIA ARE NEAR OR WITHIN VARIOUS ORGANS
-LONG PREGANLIONIC FIBERS
-SHORT POSTGANLIONIC FIBERS
-PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS IN HEAD III, VII AND IX
-PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS OF THORAX AND ABDOMEN IN X
AUTONOMIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS
-CHOLINERGIC FIBERS
-RELEASE ACETYLCHOLINE
-PREGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC FIBERS
-POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC FIBERS
AUTONOMIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS
-ADRENERGIC FIBERS
-RELEASE NOREPINEPHRINE
-POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC FIBERS
DIFFERENT NEUROTRANSMITTERS CAUSE DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF THE TWO SYSTEMS.
AUTONOMIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS
CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS
(DEPEND ON RECEPTOR)
-BIND TO ACETLYCHOLINE
-MUSCAARINIC
-NICOTINIC
-BOTH EXCITATORY
ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS
(DEPENDS ON RECEPTORS)
-BIND TO NOREPINEPHRINE
-ALPHA FOR DIFFERENT RESPONSES ON VARIOUS EFFECTORS
-BETA DIFFERENT RESPONSES ON VARIOUS EFFECTORS
CONTROL OF AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY
-CONTROLLED BY CNS
-MEDULLA OBL REGULATES CARDIAC, VASOMOTOR AND RESPIRATORY ACTIVIES
-HYPOTHALAMUS REGULATES VISCERAL FUNCTIONS
-LIMBIC SYSTEM AND CEREBRAL CORTEX CONTROL EMOTIONAL RESPONSE
WHEN DO BRAIN CELLS BEGIN TO DIE?
BEFORE BIRTH
OVER AN AVERAGE LIFETIME HOW MUCH DOES THE BRAIN SHRINK?
SHRINKS 10% OVER THE AVERAGE LIFETIME
WHERE DOES CELL DEATH OCCUR?
CELL DEATH OCCURS IN TEMPORAL LOBES
WHAT AGE DOES THE BRAIN LOOSE HALF OF IT NEURONS?
-AGE 90
-NUMBER OF DENDRITIC BRANCHES DECREASES
-DECREASED LEVELS OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS
-FADING MEMORY
-SLOWED RESPONSES AND REFLEXES
-CHANGES INCREASE IN RISK OF FALLS
-SLEEP PROBLEMS COMMON
CONCUSSION
-BRAIN JARRED AGAINST CRANIUM
-LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
-TEMPORARY LOSS OF MEMORY
-MENTAL CLOUD
-HEADACHE
-RECOVERY USUALLY COMPLETE
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
-STROKE
-SUDDEN INTERRUPTION IN BLOOD FLOW
-BRAIN TISSUES DIE
CEREBRAL PALSY
-MOTOR IMPAIRMENT AT BIRTH
-CAUSE BY BLOCKED CEREBRAL BLOOD VESSELS DURING DEVELOPMENT
-SEIZURES
-LEARNING DISABILITIES
-