Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous System
-Controls your feelings, thoughts, and movements, and automatic actions-- breathing and heartbeat
How does the Nervous System control the other body systems?
-All other body systems receive chemical dn electrical signals from the nervous sytem.
What three systems work together to produce every movement of the body?
1. Muscle System
2. Nervous System
3. Skeletal System
-Simply a change in your environment

-It can be good or irritating
Nervous System
-Responsible for sensing changes in stimuli in the environment.

-Responds to stimuli

-Controls internal environment by regulating function of your glands and organs
Which system is the 'Control System' of the body?
-The Nervous System
-The basic cell of the nervous sytem

-The nerve cell
Three parts of a Neuron
1. Axon

2. Cell Body

3. Dendrites
-Look like skinny arms coming off the cell body
-Look like long tails.
How does the nervous system carry messages in the body?
-Passes the messages from one neuron to the next.
-The axon of one neuron carries signal from the cell body to the dendrite of the next neuron.
-The dendrite carries the message to the cell body.
Electrochemical Signals
-A signal made up of both electical and chemical charges sent by the nervous system
What happens when a neuron is stimulated?
-A neuron fires a tiny electrical charge that travels down the axon.
How long can an Axon be?
-An axon can be up to a meter in length.
-Connection between two neurons
What do the special sacs on the end of the axon release?
-These sacs release chemicals into the space between the axon and the dendrite of the next neuron (synapse).
What happens when chemicals are released into the synapse?
-The chemicals cause the next neuron to fire an electrical charge, and the signal continues through the body.
What are the other cells in the nervous system?
-Supporting cells known as glial cells
Glial Cells
-More common than neurons

-Do not carry electrical charges

-Glial cells nourish and support the neurons
What are the two mini-systems within the Nervous system?
1. Central Nervous System

2. Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System
-system made up of the Brain and Spinal Cord

-control center for receiving stimuli and coordinating responses
Peripheral Nervous System
-Contains all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
What is the purpose of the Peripheral Nervous System?
-Receives stimuli from your environment and carrying response signals back to your muscles and glands
-In humans, highly complex organ
What are the three main parts of the brain?
1. Cerebrum, or forebrain

2. Cerebellum

3. Brain Stem
Brain Stem
-Long mass of tissue above the spinal cord
What are the three parts of the brain stem?
1. Medulla

2. Pons

3. Midbrain
-Main part of the brain stem

-Controls involuntary organ functions such as hearbeat, breathing, sneezing,and coughing

-Serves as connection site between the other brain parts and the spinal cord
Pons and Midbrain
-Make up rest of the brain stem

-Serve as relay stations for perpheral nerves
Cerebellum or Hindbrain
-receives information from the muscles, joints, tendons, and inner ear

-it controls muscle movements
What part of the brain controls your sense of balance
What area of the brain allows you to automatically do activities after you have practiced the movements?
What is the largest part of the brain?
-also called the forebrain
The inner forebrain controls:
-receives information from your senses
-controls many emotions
-alerts to danger
Describe the outer forebrain?
What do the wrinkles of the cerebrum do?
-The wrinkles help increase the surface area of the brain so that more information can be processed.
-Part of the brain that memory, speech, reasoning, ability, imagination, and conscious thought are controlled
What part of the brain makes us human?
When divided, how many parts does the cerebrum have?

-Right and Left Hemisphere
Why does the left side of the brain control the right side of the body and vice versa?
-Because of the crossover of nerves in the brain
Nine out of ten people use what side of the brain most often?
-Left hemiphere

-Most people are right handed
What is brain mapping?
-Process of pinpointing the exact places in the brain where certain emotions or thoughts are controlled
What led scientists to the idea that certain areas of the brain were responsible for specific functions?
-In the 1800s, a railroad worker was struck with an iron rod driven completely through his skull.

-His personality with through a great change.
Is the brain sensitive to pain?
Spinal Cord
-Thick cord of nervous tissue

-Carries messages to and from the brain
What is the approximate length of the spinal cord?
40 to 50 cm. long
What happens if the spinal cord is damaged or severed?
-Paralysis or the inability to move occurs because messages from the brain can no longer be received by the legs or the arms, depending on where the damage occurs.
-Inability to move
What is a concussion?
-Brain bruise

-Occurs when the brain is bumped agaist the skull as the result of a severe blow to the head
What are the ways that the brain and spinal cord are protected?
1. Cerebrospinal Fluid

2. Meninges

3. Skull

4. Spinal Column
Cerebrospinal Fluid
-Shock-absorbing fluid cushioning the brain and spinal cord
-Three layes of special connective tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord
-Bony helmut covering the entire brain, formed by several fused bones
Spinal column
-Hard, bumpy structure known as your backbone that protects the spinal cord
-Small bones that make up the spinal column
How many vertebrae make up the spinal column?
26 vertebrae
What keeps the bones of the spinal column from rubbing against each other as you move?
What is the Peripheral Nervous system made up of?
Nerves that carry information to and from the brain.
Sensory Nerves
-Responsible for receiving stimuli and carrying the messages to either the brain or the spinal cord
Motor nerves
-responsible for carrying messagges back from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles and glands.

-Tell muscles when to contract
Association Nerves
-Part of the central nervous system and connect the sensory and motot nerves
What are the special nerve cells that receive information from the outside world?
What types of information do the receptors receive?
Pressure, temperature, pain, taste, smell, seeing light, dark, shapes, and color.
What are the two parts of the Peripheral Nervous system?
1. Somatic Nervous System

2. Autonomic Nervous System
Which part of the nervous system is under conscious control?
-Somatic Nervous System
Which nervous system controls the smooth muscle that lines the internal organs?
-Automatic nervous system
What are the functions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
-Controls smooth muscle of internal organs
-Controls glands of the endocrine system
-Causes heart rate and breating to speed up if stressed or excited
The optic nerve leading into your eye is part of the _____________ ___________
-peripheral nervous system
Reflex action
-involuntary action
Reflex Arc
-a special 'short-cut'pathway of nerves used with a reflect action