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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuronal Communciation
Hormonal Communication
-Spread thru/out body
-Affect many cells & tissues in many diff ways
Local medicators are released by variety of cells into the? and act on?
-Interstistial fluid (fluid b/w the cells)

-act on: neighboring cells a few millimeters away.
Local Medicators may be what?

other explanins?
-Proteins, other AA derivatives, or even Fatty Acids.

-Growth Facotrs & lymphokines!!
What are Prostaglandins?
fatty acid derivative local medicators.
- they affect Smooth Muscle contractions, platelet, inflammation & other rxns.
Aspirin inhibits prostaglandins and therefore is?
An Anti-inflammatory!!
-functional unit of Nervous system.

-highly specialized cell capable of transmitting electrical signals from 1 cell to another by electrical or chem means!
So highly specialized that it has lost the capacity to what?
Although neuron uses FACILTATED transport to move glucose from blood into cytosol, unlike most cells, it is?
Not dependent upon INSULIN for this transport
Neuron depends heavily on?
Efficiency of AEROBIC respiration
receive a signal to be transmitted.
Typically, cytosol of cell body is highly conductive and any electrical stimulus creates?
a disturbance in the electric field that is transferred immediately to the------ AXON HILLOCK!!
The membrane of cell body usually deosn not contain enough what?
enough ION channels to substain an Action Potential
However what is carries the Action Potential to a synapse, which passes the signal to another cell?
Unipolar ?

Bipolar ?

Multipolar ?
Unipolar= sensory ONLY

Bipolar= retina, inner ear,
olfactory area of brain

Multipolar= most neurons of
the brain
How does the signal travel?
From Dendrites-->axon hillock
where AP is generated & moves down--> AXON--> to Synapase!!
Neurons do not depend upon insulin to obtain what?
Action Potiental originates at the what?
axon hillock
Action Potiental
disturbance in the electic field across a membrane of a neuron
Since the Na+ concentration moves toward equilibrium, and the K+ concentration remains (lower or Higher) (inside or outside)inside the cell?
K+ [ ] remains HIGHER INSIDE teh cell!
The Membrane Potential actually reverses polarity so that it is _____ on the inside, and ______ on the outside
Positve on inside!

Neg --> outside
And this process is called what?
K+ channels are ____ sensitive to voltage change so they take ____ to open?
-->Less sensitive

--->LONGER to Open
Now K+ flows _____ of the cell making the _____ more (+ or _) ?
K+ flows--> OUT of cell

Making ---> INSIDE

More---> Negative
This Process is known as what?
What is Hyerpolarization and when does it happen?
Bc K+ channels are so SLOW to close that, for fraction of sec, inside membrane becomes even more NEGATIVE than --> resting potential!
What type of diffusion returns the membrane to its resting potential
1. Membrane is at rest
Sodium and potassium channels are closed
Sodium channels open and the cell ... ?
Potassium channels OPEN as?
Sodium channels begin to INACTIVATE
4. Sodium Channels are____?
____ Potassium channels ___________ the membrane?
Na+ channels ==> INACTIVE ;

Open K+--> Repolarize memb.
Potassium channels _____ and the membrane ______ to its ______?
K+ channels --> close ;

the membrane EQUILIBRATES to