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62 Cards in this Set

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Functions:
1. receives incoming signals
2. generates outgoing signals
FUNCTIONS OF NEURONS
nonexcitable cells that provide structural support of the serve impt physiological and immunological functions in the nervous system.also called GLIAL CELLS
SUPPORT CELLS
an atom or small molecule with a positive or negative electrical charge
ION
the brain and spinal cord
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
the portion of the nervous system that lies outside the brain and spinal cord; includes nerves and ganglia
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
refers to a cell that responds to stimuli by generating an electrical signal at the cell membrane. NEURONS AND MUSCLE CELLS ARE EXCITABLE
EXCITABLE
a cell that receives signals from a neuron or a hormone ; target cell communicate can be another neuron, muscle, glands.
TARGET CELL
a neuron with a central cell body that gives rise to multiple dendrites and a single axon. The most comon type of neuron in humans.
MULTIPOLAR NEURON
the portion of the neuron containing the nucleus and organelles, also called the SOMA
CELL BODY
another word for BODY. In the nervous system, the soma refers to the cell body of a neuron.
SOMA
a cytoplasmic process that extends from a neuron's cell body. Neuron typically have many dendrites, which are usually shorter and thicker than axons and highly branched. Dendrites receive signals from other neurons.
DENDRITES
a long, thin cytoplasmic process that extends from a neurons cell body. The axon may be insulated with MYELIN. Each neuron has a single axon, which transmits ACTION POTENTIAL
AXON
3 CHARACTERISTICS STRUCTURAL FEATURES: 1. cell body 2. dendrites. 3. axons
3 CHARACTERISTICS STRUCTURAL FEATURES
receives signals coming in from other cells and send them toward the axon.
FUNCTION OF DENDRITES
is the main nutritional and metabolic region of the neuron, also receives signals from other cells and sends them toward the axon.
SOMA
-transmitting or conducting region of the neuron.
-generates an action potential, an outgoing signal also called nerve impulse, and conduct it to next cell.
FUNCTION OF AXON
a long distance regenerative electrical signal transmitted along axon. The action potential is the all or none event. also called a NERVE IMPULSE, SPIKE OR DISCHARGE.
ACTION POTENTIAL
another term for action potential
NERVE IMPULSE
information flow is DIRECTIONAL
- path of information: dendrites(IN)-soma(IN)-axon(out)
-action potential is conducted along the axon toward the target cell.
NEURON INFORMATION IS DIRECTIONAL
junction between a neuron and its target cell (another neuron, muscle or gland). Signals between neuron and other cells are communicated across synapses.
SYNAPSE
the first portion or initial segment of the axon
AXON HILLOCK
a brach of an axon
AXON COLLATERAL
the bulbous ending of a branch of an axon. also called synaptic ending or a synaptic bouton.
AXON TERMINAL
THE insulation surrounding axons. The myelin sheath is formed by support cells that wrap repeatedly around an axon, forming a thick layer of cell membrane.
MYELIN SHEATH
- insulate the axon
one type of support cell in the nervous system. found in the peripheral nervous system, this forms myelin sheaths around axons
SCHWANN CELL
schwann cell wraps around and around the axon. so cytoplasm is squeezed out so the tightnes wound becomes the insulation
MYELINATION
- gap between schwann cell.
tiny areas of bare axon between neighboring segments of myelin sheath; charge flows across the mebrane only at the nodes of ranvier so the action potential appears to jump along the axon.
NODES OF RANVIER
1. dendrites 2. cell body
CONDUCTIVE AND INTEGRATIVE REGION(receive and inegrate incoming signals)
Axon-vary in length 1 or 2 mm more than 1 m.
-insulated with myelin sheath
CONDUCTIVE REGION (generates and transmits an outgoing signal.
control the movement of ions across the membrane.
ION CHANNELS
an atom or small molecule with a positive or negative electrical charge.
ION
proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.
INTEGRAL PROTEINS
integral proteins containing watery pores through which ion pass to cross the cell membrane.
- control the movement through the neuronal cell mebrane.
ION CHANNELS
IOn channels are :
-selective(they select ions for passage based on the charge on the ion, size and how much water the ion attracts and holds around it.
-passive or active (ACTIVE have gates that open or close the channel. ) (PASSIVE - leakage channels that are always open, ion pass continuosly)
-regionaly located
-functionally unique
ION CHANNELS DESCRIPTION
ion channels with gates that are open or close by changes in the membrane.
VOLTAGE GATED CHANNELS
slightly more positive outside and slighlt negative inside.
NEURONAL CELL MEMBRANE
- the difference produces a voltage across the cell mebrane. (-70 mv)
-electrical potential or voltage across a cell membrane that results from the separation of charged particles across the mebrane.
- at rest (volatage gated are closed) during action potential (voltage gated are open and close
MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
a chemical that is release at the synapse
NEUROTRANSMITTER (ach)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (a neurotransmitter )
GABA
ion chanelss with gates that open or close when a neurotransmitter binds to them.
voltage chemically gated ions
REGIONALLY LOCATION:
1. PASSIVE CHANNELS - located in dendrites, cell body, axon.
2. CHEMICALLY GATED CHANNELS - dendrites and cell body.
3. VOLTAGE GATED CHANNELS - axon hillock, unmyelinated axons and Nodes of Ranvier.
REGIONALLY LOCATION OF ION CHANNELS
1. PASSIVE CHANNELS - responsible for resting membrane potential
2. CHEMICALLY GATED CHANNELS- responsible for synaptic potentials or incoming signal to neuron.
3. VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS - generation and propagation of action potential, the outgoing signal of neuron.
FUNCTIONS OF ION CHANNELS
- incoming signal to neurons.
-a short distance electrical signal thatcary vary in amplitude.
SYNAPTIC POTENTIAL
-only potassium may pass through
-always open
-found on dendrites
found on cell body
found along axon
-essentialfor producing the resting membrane potential
PASSIVE POTASSIUM CHANNEL
-only sodium may pass through
-opened and closed gates
-gates are sensitive to mebrane voltage
-found along axon
-not found on dendrites or cell body
-essential for producing action potential
VOLTAGE GATED SODIUM CHANNEL
cause ions to move across cell membranesresults in separation across the membrane, then creates action potential or force.
GRADIENTS
electrical potential
MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
the movement of molecules from one location to another because of random thermal motion. NET MOVEMENT is from a region of higher conct. to a region of lower conct.
DIFFUSION
an atom or small molecule with a positive or negative electric charge.
ION
negatively charged ion
ANION
positively charged ion
CATION
integral proteins containing watery pores through which ion pass to cell membrane.
ION CHANNELS
located outside the cell, includes interstitial fluid and plasma.
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
OUTSIDE/INSIDE THE CELL :
1. NA - 150 outside
2. K - 150 inside
3. Cl 10 inside
CONCENTRATION OF IONS IN AND OUT OF CELL
characteristics of cell membrane that permits some particles to cross it, but prevents other particles from crossing
- permeable to NA K Cl , impermeable to - charged and anions that are large.
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY
very permeable to K and slightly to Na
EXCITABLE CELLS
the difference in the concentration of a particular substance between two adjacent areas.
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
an electrical force across a cell membrane that resulsta from separation of charged paricles across the mebrane.
-pulls K into cell.
ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL
- state of chemical stability in which no net change occurs. For ion in equilibrium across cell membrane, the amt moving out is equal to amt moving in .
EQUILIBRIUM
the membrane potential at which the electrical and chemical forcs that drive that ion across the cell mebrane are equal and opposite.
EQUILIBRIUM POTENTIAL
resting neurons: very permeable to K and slight to Na
RESTING NEURONS
a membrane enzyme that uses the energy of ATP to transport Na and K ion against their respective electrochemical gradients.
- uses the energy of ATp to move Na and K against their electro chemical gradients.
- 3 Na pumps out and 3 K pumped in.
NA-KA PUMP