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210 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cerebellum (little brain)
cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
entire brain
ganglion (knot)
word or phrase
meninges (membrane)
spinal cord or bone marrow
stupor, sleep
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
carry or bear
three dimensional or solid
order or coordination
thalamus (a room)
tone or tension
ventricle (belly or pouch)
condition of abnormal impulse toward
slight paralysis
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
largest portion of the brain, divided ito two halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe reponsible for hearing taste and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes resposible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, reponsible for higher mental functions
thalamus (diencephalon)
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
ring or circle, convolutions of the cerebral hemispheres
ditch, shallow grooves that separate the gyri
splitting crack, deep grooves in the brain
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum cerebellum and spinal cord responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature, three levels mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fliud
cerebrospinal fliud
plasma like clear fliud circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal consists of the dura matter, pia matter and arachnoid
peripheral nervous system
nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
sprinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain also called afferent nerves
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands also called efferent nerves
autonomic nervous system
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle cardiac muscle and various glands
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions, it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
condition without speech, impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
condition of difficult articulation, group of related speech impairments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movement as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles
difficulty speaking
general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with barying responsiveness a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function, that are many causes, including fever, shock or drug overdose
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss disorientation and confusion
motor deficit
loss of impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
pain along the course of a nerve
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
flaccid paralysis
defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paralysis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
partial paralysis of the right or left half or the body
pain that follows the pathyway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression of trauma of the nerve or its roots
sudden, trasient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
to pull together type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
tactile stimulation
evoking a response by touching
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
any of many types of loss of nerological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
inability to judge the form of an object by touch
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
Alzheimer disease
disease os structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control, also known as lou gehrig disease
cerebral palsy
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lip buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebrovascular accident stroke
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease
transient ischemic attack
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial oclusion that results in temporary neurological deficit
carotid TIA
ischemia of the anterior circulation of the brain
vertebrobasilar TIA
ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain
inflammation of the brain
disorder affective the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
tonic clonic
stiffeing jerking a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups previously termed grand mal seizure
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement previously termed petit mal seizure
seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
tumor of glidal cells graded by degree or malignancy
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes causing compression on the nerve root
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally also known as shingles
Huntington disease
hereditary diease of the central nervous system
Huntington chorea
characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
abnormal accumulatin of cerebrospinal fliud in the ventricles of the brain as a results of developmental anomalies, infectin, injury or tumor
benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
inflammtion of the meninges
migraine headache
paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and vomiting lasting hours days and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination of nerve fibers with episodes or neurological dysfunction followed by recovery
myasthenia gravis
autoimmume disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest
inflammation of the spinal cord
sleep disorder characterized by a sudeen, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis and dreams intruding while awake
parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamine characterized by tremor rigidy of muscles and slow movements usually occuring later in life
paralysis on one side of the body
paralysis from the waist down
paralysis of all four limbs
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
inflammation involving two or more nerves often owing to a nutritinal deficiency such as lack of thiamine
reflex sympathetic dystrophy
condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in reponse to pain perception usually as the result of an injury to an extremity
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep often causing snoring
spina bifida
congeital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
record of the minute electrical impulses of the rain used to identify neurological conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
evoked potentials
record of minute electrical potentials that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory visual and sensory pathway disorders also used to monitor the neurological function of patients during surgery
nerve conduction velocity
electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction used to diagnose various peripheral nervous system diseases
recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
lumbar puncture
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose such as to obtain cerebrospinal fliud for testing also called spinal tap
magentic resonance imaging
nonionizing imaging technique using magnetci fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomical structures such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
magnetic resonance angiography
use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
intracrnial MRA
magnectic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis
extracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of theneck to bisualize the carotid artery
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
SPECT brain scan
scan combinng nuclear medicine and computer tomography technology to produce imagies of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
positron emission tomography
technique combining nuclear medicine and computer tomography technology to produce images of brain anatoy and corresponding physiology - used to study stroke Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain diorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain etc, it provides greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often beacuse of cost and limited availability of the radioisotopes
x ray imaging
cerebral angiogram
x ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
computer tomography
computer tomographic x ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities with
x ray spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
reflex testing
test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
deep tendon reflexes
involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function positive findings are noted when there is either no reflex response or exaggerated response to stimulus
Babinski sign or reflex
pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex
transcranial sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
incision into the skull to approach the brarin
removal of a herniated disk often done percutanteously
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to apprach the spinal cord
vertebral lamina
flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
utilization of a microscope to dissect minute strcutures during surgery
neuroendovascular surgery
diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists common procedures include
cerebral angioplasty and stent
surgical repair of a nerve
spinal fusion
treatment of malignancies infections and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of maliginant cells
sterotactic fram
mechanical device used to localize to point in space targeting a precise site
thrombolytic therapy
dissolution of thrombi using drugs used to treat acute ischemic stroke
agent that relieves pain
drug that precents clotting of the blood commoly used to prevent heartattack and ischemic stroke
agent that prevents of lessens convulsion
agents that induces sleep
agents that has a calming effect
emotional feeling or mood
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
lack of interest of display of emotion
state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment usually including muscle rigidity staring and inability to communicate
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
grandiose delusion
persistent belief that he or she possesses great wealth intelligence or power
persecutory delusion
person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
restless dissatisfied mood
exaggerated unfounded feeling of well-being
false perception of the senses for which there is no reality most commonly hearing or seeing things
formation of thoughts or ideas
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
thought disorder
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
major depression
major depressive illness
clinical depression
major affective disorder
unipolar disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration sleep actvity appetite and social behavior characterized by feelings of worthlessness fatigue and loss of interest
milder affective diorder characterized by a chonic depression persisting for at least 2 years
manic depression bipolar disorder
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
seasonal defective disorder
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
generalized anxiety disorder
most common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic excessive and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions and employment
panic disorder
disorder of sudden recurrent attacks of intense feelings including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack such as rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating and dizziness
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic named for the object or circumstances such as agraphobia or acrophobia
posttraumatic stress disorder
condition resulting form an extremely tramaitc experience injury or illness that leaves the suffere with persistent thoughts and membories of the ordeal
obessive compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life
preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
developmental disability commonly appearing during the first three years of life resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words sentences or paragraphs affecting reading spelling and sef expressio
attention deficit and hyperactivity behavior
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity distractibility and lack of control over impulses which interferes with the ability to function normally at school home or work
mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
anerexia nervousa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
bulimia nervosa
eating diorder characterized in binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestions through induced vomitting use of laxatives and excessive exercise
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting form abuse of substances such as drugs alcohol or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunction
disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range or positive and negative symptoms
featuring disorganized speech behavio and flat of inappropriate affect
featuring catatonia
featuring delusions most often persecutory or grandiose types
shizoaffective disorder
concurent with major depression or manic depression
electroconvulsive therapy
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions used to treat severely depressed patients
light therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorders
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients indivudally or in a group employing specific actions and techniques
behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses
antianxiety agents
anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
neroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis espcially schizophrenia