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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- produced by glial cells
- insulating sumstance that allows axons to conduct impulses faster
Shwann cells
- produce myelin in peripheral nervous system
- produce myelin in the central nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier
- gapes between myelin sheath
- more negative inside than normal
refractory period
- immediately after action potential
- difficult to initiatie another action potential
neuronal information
- coded by frequency and number of action potentials and NOT the size of action potential (all-or-none response)
Na+ electrochemical gradient
Na+ wants to go into the cell because it is more negative inside (electrical gradient) and because there is less Na+ inside (chemical grandient)
saltatory conduction
jumping from node to node
effector cells
postsynaptic cells other than neurons (muscles or glands)
Neurotransmitters are removed by a variety of ways...
- taken back up into nerve terminal
- degraded by an enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) located in the synapse
- diffuse out of synapse
afferent neurons
- neurons that carry information TO brain or spinal cord
efferent neurons
- neurons that carry commands FROM the brain or spinal cord to varius parts of the body
clusters of neuronal cell bodies located at the periphery
central nervous system
- brain
- spinal cord
gray matter
cell bodies
white matter
myelinated axons
- cerebral cortex
- thalamus
- hypothalamus
cerebral cortex
- processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses
- important for memory and creative thought
- relay and integration center for spinal cord and cerebral cortex
- controls visceral functions (hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, temperature)
- tole in control of endocrine system
- relay center for visual and auditory impulses
- role in motor control
- cerebellum
- pons
- medulla
- modulate motor impulses initiated by motor cortex
- maintain balance, hand-eye coordination, and timing of rapid movements
- relay center to allow cortex to communicate with cerebellum
- contrals vital functions (breathing, heart rate, gastrointestinal activity)
midbrain, pons, and medulla
sensory information in spinal cord
- sensory info enters spinal cord dorsally
- cel bodies of sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia
motor information in spinal cord
- motor info exits spinal cord ventrally
Peripheral nervous system
- somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous system
- innervates skeletal muscles
- responsible for voluntary movement
motor neuron neurotransmitter
- acetylcholine
monsynaptic reflex pathway
- only one synpase between sensory neuron and motor neuron
- knee-jerk reflex
polysynaptic reflex pathway
- sensory neurons synpase with more than one motor neuron
- withdrawl reflex
autonomic nervous system
- regulates involuntary movements
- innervates cardiac and smooth muscle
- blood pressure cntrol, gastrointestinal motility, respiration, excretory, reproductive processes
- has 2-neuron system
2-neuron system
- preganglionic neuron has cell body located within CNS and its axon synapses in peripheral ganglia
- postsynaptic neuron has cell body in ganglia and synapses on cardiac or smooth muscle
sympathetic nervous systems
- fight of flight
- increase heart rate and breathing rate
- directs blood away from skin and toward muscles
- decrease digestion
- pupil dilation
parasympathetic nervous system
- acts to conserve energy and restore body to resting activity levels following exertion
- lower heart rate, increase digestion
- rest and digest
vagus nerve
- parasympathetic nerve
- innervates thoracic and abdominal viscera
monitor internal enviornment (blood pressure)
transmit info regardin position of body
sense things in external environment (light, sound, taste, pain...)
contains photoreceptors that sense light
- at front of eye
- bends and focuses light rates
muscle that controls diameter of iris
ciliary musces
control lens shape to focus image onto retina
- respond to high-intensity light
- senstive to color
- respond to low-intensity light
- night vision
- small area on retina that is packed with cones
- important for high acuity vision
tympanic membrane
- ear drum
- vibrates at same frequency as incoming sound
- transmits vibrations to three bones
three bones in ear
malleus, incus, stapes
- amplify stimulus and transmit it through oval window leading to inner ear
- contains organ of Corti
organ of Corti
- in cochlea
- has hair cells that transduce action potentials that travel via auditory nerve to brain
- fluid filling semicircular canals
olfactory bulbs
- olfactory receptors joing to form olfactory nerves that go to olfactory bulbes in base of brain