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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
myelin
- produced by glial cells
- insulating sumstance that allows axons to conduct impulses faster
Shwann cells
- produce myelin in peripheral nervous system
Oligodendrocytes
- produce myelin in the central nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier
- gapes between myelin sheath
hyperpolarization
- more negative inside than normal
refractory period
- immediately after action potential
- difficult to initiatie another action potential
neuronal information
- coded by frequency and number of action potentials and NOT the size of action potential (all-or-none response)
Na+ electrochemical gradient
Na+ wants to go into the cell because it is more negative inside (electrical gradient) and because there is less Na+ inside (chemical grandient)
saltatory conduction
jumping from node to node
effector cells
postsynaptic cells other than neurons (muscles or glands)
Neurotransmitters are removed by a variety of ways...
- taken back up into nerve terminal
- degraded by an enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) located in the synapse
- diffuse out of synapse
afferent neurons
- neurons that carry information TO brain or spinal cord
efferent neurons
- neurons that carry commands FROM the brain or spinal cord to varius parts of the body
ganglia
clusters of neuronal cell bodies located at the periphery
central nervous system
- brain
- spinal cord
gray matter
cell bodies
white matter
myelinated axons
forebrain
- cerebral cortex
- thalamus
- hypothalamus
cerebral cortex
- processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses
- important for memory and creative thought
thalamus
- relay and integration center for spinal cord and cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
- controls visceral functions (hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, temperature)
- tole in control of endocrine system
midbrain
- relay center for visual and auditory impulses
- role in motor control
hindbrain
- cerebellum
- pons
- medulla
cerebellum
- modulate motor impulses initiated by motor cortex
- maintain balance, hand-eye coordination, and timing of rapid movements
pons
- relay center to allow cortex to communicate with cerebellum
medulla
- contrals vital functions (breathing, heart rate, gastrointestinal activity)
brainstem
midbrain, pons, and medulla
sensory information in spinal cord
- sensory info enters spinal cord dorsally
- cel bodies of sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia
motor information in spinal cord
- motor info exits spinal cord ventrally
Peripheral nervous system
- somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous system
- innervates skeletal muscles
- responsible for voluntary movement
motor neuron neurotransmitter
- acetylcholine
monsynaptic reflex pathway
- only one synpase between sensory neuron and motor neuron
- knee-jerk reflex
polysynaptic reflex pathway
- sensory neurons synpase with more than one motor neuron
- withdrawl reflex
autonomic nervous system
- regulates involuntary movements
- innervates cardiac and smooth muscle
- blood pressure cntrol, gastrointestinal motility, respiration, excretory, reproductive processes
- has 2-neuron system
2-neuron system
- preganglionic neuron has cell body located within CNS and its axon synapses in peripheral ganglia
- postsynaptic neuron has cell body in ganglia and synapses on cardiac or smooth muscle
sympathetic nervous systems
- fight of flight
- increase heart rate and breathing rate
- directs blood away from skin and toward muscles
- decrease digestion
- pupil dilation
parasympathetic nervous system
- acts to conserve energy and restore body to resting activity levels following exertion
- lower heart rate, increase digestion
- rest and digest
vagus nerve
- parasympathetic nerve
- innervates thoracic and abdominal viscera
interoceptors
monitor internal enviornment (blood pressure)
proprioceptors
transmit info regardin position of body
exteroceptors
sense things in external environment (light, sound, taste, pain...)
retina
contains photoreceptors that sense light
cornea
- at front of eye
- bends and focuses light rates
iris
muscle that controls diameter of iris
ciliary musces
control lens shape to focus image onto retina
cones
- respond to high-intensity light
- senstive to color
rods
- respond to low-intensity light
- night vision
fovea
- small area on retina that is packed with cones
- important for high acuity vision
tympanic membrane
- ear drum
- vibrates at same frequency as incoming sound
- transmits vibrations to three bones
three bones in ear
malleus, incus, stapes
- amplify stimulus and transmit it through oval window leading to inner ear
cochlea
- contains organ of Corti
organ of Corti
- in cochlea
- has hair cells that transduce action potentials that travel via auditory nerve to brain
endolymph
- fluid filling semicircular canals
olfactory bulbs
- olfactory receptors joing to form olfactory nerves that go to olfactory bulbes in base of brain