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15 Cards in this Set

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descripe the organization of the nervous system according to the structure and function
it is broken in to two parts the central nervous system CNS the brain and the spinal cord and the other part is the periphal nervous system which is made up of all the nerves outside the cns
explain the difference between the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves and how many nerves are in each
cranial nerves carries impluses to and from the brain 12 pairs the spinal nerves carries messages to and from the spinal cord and there is 31 pairs
explain the purpose of neuroglia
they protect and support and aid in repair of cells act as phagocytes to remove pathogens and impurities and the regulate the composition of the fluids around and between the cells
3 pts of the neuron and the function of each
sensory or afferent neurons they conduct impulses TO the spinal cord and brain motor neurons or efferent they carry impulses from the cns out to muscles and glands interneurons or central neurons relay info within the cns
explain the role of myelin
fatty white material that insulates and protects the fiber
explain the role of schwann cells and neurilemma
schwann cells are special connective tissue use to cover like a jelly roll around axons and the neurilemma is the outermost membrane of the schwann cell helps to repair themselves when injured
describe the transmission of nerve impulses
the stimuli starts and it goes from depolarization to repolarization forcing + potassium ions (K+)to the middle of the membrane and forcing the sodium ions (Na+)out to the outside than vice versa to a resting state
define neurotransmitters and give examples of them
when info passes the synaptic cleft in a chemical known as the neurotransmitter epinephrine also called adrenaline
explain the role of neurotransmitter in the nerve conduction
they transport info during to get across the synaptic cleft
descripe what happens to neurotransmitters after its release into the synaptic cleft
may slowly diffuse away may be destroyed rapidly by enzymes in the synaptic cleft or it may be taken back to the presynaptic cell to be use again (reuptake)
descripe the nerve impules transmission at a synapse
it usually occurs from the axon of one cell to the dentrite of another cell
state the difference between a nerve and a tract
nerve is in the perpharal nervous system and tracts are in the central nervous system
explain the difference between sensory (afferent) nervous motor(efferent)nerves and the mixed nerves
sensory(afferent) nerves carry impulses TOWARD the CNS(from a receptor and the motor (efferent)nerves carry impulses AWAY from the CNS (to an effector) and the mixed nerves contains both sensory and motor nerves
describe a reflex and give examples of two different types fo reflexes
simple reflex is rapid automatic response using few neurons stretch reflex is like eye blinking spinal reflex is coordinated in spinal cord
componets of a refex arc
receptors- detects stimulus sensory neurons-receptor to CNS central neuron- in cns motor neuron cns to effector effector- muscle or gland that responds