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28 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions (jobs) of the nervous system?
Three:
1-Receiving information both inside and outside the body;2-responding to information; 3-Maintaining homeostatis
What are examples of how the nervous system receives information?
Sight--you can see what is happening; hearing-- you can hear what is around you; feeling-- wind, cold, hot.
How does the nervous system respond to information?
An organism will respond to a stimulus
What is a stimulus?
a change or signal in the environment that makes an organism react or respond.
What is a response?
What your body does in reaction to a stimulus.
What are the two types of responses to stimuli?
Voluntary and involuntary
What is homeostasis?
the ability of your body to maintain equilibrium
Give an example of how the nervous system maintains homeostasis.
Telling you you are hungry when your body needs food; sweating when you get too hot; shivering when you get too cold
What are neurons?
cells that carry information through your nervous system.
What is a nerve impulse?
The message that a neuron carries
What is the structure of a neuron?
A large cell body that contains a nucleus and has threadlike extensions called nerve fibers.
What are the two types of nerve fibers in a neuron?
Dendrites-- carries impulses toward the cell body.
Axons-- carries impulses away from the cell body.
A bundle of nerve fibers is called a __________.
Nerve
How does the structure of a neuron enable it to carry nerve impulses?
Nerve impulses begin in a dendrite, move toward the cell body and then move down the axon
A neuron can have many __________ but only one ___________.
A neuron can have many _dendrites but only one axon.
How are nerve fibers arranged in the body?
In parallel bundles covered with connective tissue. This bundle is called a nerve.
How many types of neurons are found in the body?
3- sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons.
How do the 3 types of neurons work together? (Step 1)
First a receptor in a sensory neuron picks up stimuli from the environment and converts the stimuli into a nerve impulse.
How do the 3 types of neurons work together? (Step 2)
Second, an interneuron carries the nerve impulse from one neuron to another. Some pass the impulse from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron.
How do the 3 types of neurons work together? (Step 3)
Third, a interneuron passes the impulse to a motor neuron which sends an impulse to a muscle. The muscle contracts in response.
What is a synapse?
The tiny space between each axon tip and the next structure-- either a dendrite of another neuron or a muscle or a cell in another organ.
How does a nerve impulse travel?
the impulse begins in the dendrites of a neuron, travels toward the cell body then down the axon until it reaches the axon tip. Then the axon tip releases chemicals that lets the impulse cross the synapse.
What happens when a nerve impulse reaches the end of an axon?
Chemicals are released into the synapes which enables the nerve impulse to cross the synapse
What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
What is the central nervous system?
The brain and the spinal cord
What is the peripheral nervous system?
All the nerves located outside the central nervous system
What part of the nervous system controls the most functions in the body?
The brain
What is the spinal cord?
The column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system