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283 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a specialist who treats and operates surgically on disorders of nervous system
what does the nervous system include
brain skull arterial blood supply spinal cord nerves and spine
a specialist who has trained ion diagnosis and treatment of nervous sytem
what do neurologists do
perform neurological examinations
what do they exam
nerves of head neck muscle strength and movement balance ambulation reflexes sensation memory speech language
sensitivity to pain
medulla oblongata
spinal cord
sensation or feeling
gluey substance
tension, tone
woithout, not
a aphasia
without not
an analgesia
brady bradykinesia
sensitivity to pain
sensation or feeling
seiszure attack
partial paralysis
what color is the brain
grayish-pink with bulges and grooves
what is it made of
fluid-filled channels and cavities are made of billions of interacting cells
how many layers of membranes does it have
3 bathed in protective fluid
it is encased in what
a hard case of bone
how much does it weigh
about w3 pounds
t;he brain is the most vital organ to our being t or f
true it makes us who we are
how are the braion and nervous system important for living
like a computer the brain controls everything from the beating and emotions of the heart. working in tandem with the brain the nervous system is the wiring relays info to the computer
what does the spinal cord contain
contains thread-like nerves that branch off to every part of the body
sensory nerves dod what
carry messages from the snse organs eyes ears nose tongue and skin to the brain for processing
what will the brain do with this info
sends instructions through other specialized nerves to the physical parts of body such as muscles to carry commands
what would happen to our muscles without the nervous system
our muscles would be useless
what makes ukp the central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
what are they covered with?
3 layers of membranes
what are the membranes called
what are they bathed in
protective cerebrospinal fluid
what does the cerebrospinal fluid do
acts as a shock absorber to prevent injury
what is the largest part of the brain comprised
the cerebrum
describe the cerebrum
split into right and left hemispheres controls voluntary actions thought speech and memory
what is the gray matter
the cortex
where is the cortex
outer layer of cerebrum
what is the cerebrum made
cell bodies of neurons or nerve cells
what is done in the folds of gray matter or cortex
processing information the blueprints are kept for intelligence memory personality emotion speech and ability to move
what else is found in the white matter of cortex
nerve fibers
what does the midbrain do
acts as a cellular switchboard keeping the different areas of the brain communicating with one another carries out most complicated functions simultaneous commands
what does the central structure of the brain contains
thalamus hypothalamus and pituitary gland
what does the thalamus do
carries messages from sensory organs to brain
what does the hypothalamus do
regulates automatic functions pulse rate thirst appetite sexual and sleep patterns regulates pituitary gland's hormoses growth metabolism stress
what are ventricles
cavities within the brain
what do ventricles contain
cerebrospinal fluid
what does the cerebrospinal fluid do
protects brains's delicate structure nourishes brain tissue and carries away swste materials
the back of the brain is divided into how many parts
what is latin for cerebellum
little btain
where is the cerebellum located
below cerebral hemispheres
what does it control
our ability to make coordinated and balanced moter movements
what connects the brain to the top of spinal cord
medulla oblongata
what does the medulla oblongata control
involuntary actions heartbeat breathing and digestion
what is the pons
specialized band of nerve fibers links midbrain with medulla oblongata
what does the pons do
acts as a high-functiong switchboard
what is the spinal cord
made of tissue made up of neurons and supporting cells
what is the spina cord covered by
meningeal membranes
what is the spinal cord protected by
stacked set of ring-shaped bones
what are these bones called
the vertebrae togerher with the what make the spinal comun
bottom of medulla o;blongata
the spinal column is classified by what
how many regions are there
what is the neck called
what is the ribcage/upper back called
what is the midkkk-/lower back called
what is the tailbone called
what branches off from the spina cord
where are these nerve extending
passing through bony vertebrae extending to the organs and body parts wired
what is in the spaces the vertebrae
rubbery material cartilage
what are these cartilage cushions called
spinal disks
what do the spinal disks allow
flexible movement between the vertebrae backs can bend and absorb shock
what is the joining area of several arteries at bottom inferior side of brain
Circle of Willis
what does the Circle of Willis do
internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of cerebrum
Cranial nerve #I
Olfactory sensory smell
Cranial Nerve #II
optic sensory sight
Cranial nerve #III
oculomotor motor eye movement
cranial nerve #IV
Troclear moter eye movement
How many nerves does cranial nerve #V have
what are they
Ophthalmic face and scalp sensation
Maxillary mouth and nose sensation
Mandibular chewing
cranial nerve #VI
abducens motor eye movement
cranial nerve #VII
Facial mixed face and scalp movement tongue taste sensation ear pain/temperature
vestibulocochlear sensory hearing and equilibrium
glossopharyngeal mixed ear pain/temperature tongue/throat sensations throat movement
Vagus mixed throat/voice box /chest/abdominal sensations voice box/throat movement chest and abdomial viscera movement
accessory motor neck and back movement
Hypoglossal motor tongue movement
right side of brain controls
creativity feelings thoughts
3 layers of membranes protect brain and spinal cord
what is the initiator and controller of all purposeful movements
the brain
what are the folds called in the brain
what are the grooves called in the brain
what are the gyri and sulci responsible for
movements sof a partivular body part
what side of the brain controls the motor movements of the right side of the body
left and vice versa
what relays nerve impulses from the brain through the spinal cord and out to the muscles electrical messages
motor neurons
movements requiring great coordination need what
the cerebellum
what is reponsible for maintenanace of body temperature, sweat shiver and keepus at 98.6 and dother involuntary actions breathing didgestion circulation waste hormone secretion
brain particularly hypothalamus
How does it take care of these actions
by sending impuilses to regulatory nerves in heart muscles smooth muscles and glands
what are the body's regulatory processes controlled by
autonomic nervous system
what does the autonomic nervous systemconsist of
two opposing systems the sympathetic and parasypathetic nervous systems
how does the brain use the sympathectic nervous system
quicken heartbeats and breathing coordinate changes in flow of blood through blood vessels in sudden stress
what else does the sympathetic nervous system have
the fight or flight mechanism accompanied by adrenaline hormone
another name for adrenaline
what does the adrenaline do
helps deliver a surge of power to muscles for quick getaway in danger
what does the parasympathetic nervous system do
has opposite effect prepars body for restful stsatwe
what else does the parasympathetic systewm do
key in digestion allowing timed enzyme release and coordinated movements of smoothe muscles and organs to obtain nutients and produce energy from food
where is the pituitary gland
beneathe the cerebrum immediately below hypothalamus
what does it produce
what are hormones
chemical messengers carry instructions through bloodstream to other organs and tissues
what kind of hormones does the pituitary gland produce
growth sexual maturation metabolism body fluid and mineral balance breast milk labor at childbirth
where is the filing system of what we do learn and see
in cerebral cortex
if the info is important remembered permanently where does it go
in the form of nerve messagwes to hippocampus and amygdala long-term storage
what happens with the messages traveling through these pathways
affect linking of neurons involved in process of memory
the brain recieves sensory signals fronm where
five senses can coordinate and carry out actions
what sense tells us about the world more than others
how does light enter eye
forms upside-down image on retina
how many light-responsive cells does the retina have
130 million
what does the brain do to the image
turns it right-side up and tells us what we see
what does the brain do to the picture each eye sees
converts the images into single three D image
how do we hear
sound waves entrer our ears and cause eardrums to vibratew
what happens to these vibrations
transferred along tiny bones of middle ear, converted into nerve signals in inner ear carried through hearing nerves to back of brain
what does the brain's cortex then do
processes thedse messages telling us what we hear
what does the tongue contain
small groups of sensory cells
what are thew sensory cells called
taste buds react tochemicals in foods
human taste buds react to how many tastes
4 sweet sour salty and bitter
combinations of these are what
flavors to savor
where are messages sent
from the taste buds to brain stem then to thalamus
what does the thalamus do
analyze messages then send to areas in cortex for processing taste
describe the salivary glands
linked to brain stem stimulated when taste smell or think about food
where are olfactory cells
in mucous membranes lining each nostril
what happens with the reaction to chemicals we breathe in
send messages along olfactory naerves to brain for procaessing
what is our sense of smell linked to
sense of taste
a person without a functioning olfactory system has no what
concept of taste even with taste buds
how manu primary smells are there
how many smells can we distinguish
smell plays important part in what
attraction and mating of animals
body odors are what substance
how do we sense pheomones hormone-like chemicals
vomeronasal organ in nose interest to perfumes and colognes
how many sensory receptors does the skin have
more than 4 million
where are the sensory receptors concentrated
fingers tongue lips
what are thesew nerve endings sensitive to
touch pressure teperature pain
how is the sensory information gathered
relayed through specific nerve bundles back to central nervous system for processing and reaction
what happens when you stub a toe
youfeel the pressure but feel the pain a little later
sensory nerves of touch carry messages to brain quicker that thew nerves reponsible for pain
what is responsible for blaancde and coordination
semicircular canals of inner ear
what do the canals or inner ear do
alerts brain if body's position is not in balance
why do people feel dizzy from motion sickness
the messagews may change too quickly for the brain to keep up
what is equilibrium
what can affect multiple body systems and is often serious
when somehting goes wrong within the brain
alzheimer's disease
Describe AD
slowly progressive form of dementia progressive acquired impairment of intellectual functions memory impairment
absence of brain and spinal cord at birth
anencephaly detected in pregnancy
hardening of arteries
arteriosclerosis of extremities
disease of blood vessels narrowing hardening supply legs and feet
skull fractures children seen several days following a basilar skull fracture
Battle's sign bloody discharge from ear
injury or damage to facial nerve temporary or permanent paralysis on one side of face
Bell's palsy sometimes with Lyme disease
now allows for pinpoint location and destruction of this using radiation
brain tumor benign
cancerous and grows rapidly and spread
malignant tumor brain
cerebellar astrocytoma
children doesn't spread excellent prognosis
fast-growing brain tumor spread via cerebrospinal fluid brain stem glioma grows form tissues of brain stem children
upper part of brain benign tumor hypothalamus and pituitary gland
craiopharyngioma childhood tumor
compression of median nerve at wrist numbness weakness tingling
carpal tunnel syndrom
cerebral palsy
developmental defect or damage to brain before birth can be normal to brain damaged minor muscle weakness to motor impairment
cerebrovascular accident
blood supply to brain in interrupted tissue death loss of brain function STROKE
head stikes against object unconsciousness or bleeding in or around brain
language impairment
difficult poorly articulated speech
impaired expression or comprehension of written or spoken language
difference between dysarthria and aphasia
difficulty in articulation of words vs problem with production of language
impairment of speech
swallowing impairment
type of brain tumor
tonic-clonic seizure
grand mal seizure involves entire body abnormal electrical activity in nerve cells of brain
generalized seizures
abnormal electrical activity at multiple locations in brain like a grand mal
Guillain-Barre syndrome
nerve inflammation involving progressive muscle weakness or paralysis infectious illness
Another name for Guillain-Barre syndrome
Landry_Buillain_Barre syndrome acute idiopathic polyneuritis infectious polyneuritis acutew inflammatory polyneuropathy
most common headache
tension mucsle tension in head neck and shoulders
intense recurring blood vessels in brain narrow and widen
severe form of migraine
cluster headache several hours or days
bleeding into skin subcdutaneous tissues mucous membranes forms a lump
flat areas where blood has collected under tissue
paralysis one side of body
lower half of body sometimes trunk paralysis
paralysis in all four limbs and trunk
loss of brain functions loss of blood circulation to brain blockagaew occurs when clot or piece of athrerosclerotic plaque breaks away and lodges invasculature of brain
hemorrhagic stroke
inheritewd condition abnormal body movements dementia psychiatric problems
Huntington's chorea
accumalation of cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles of brain enlargement and swelling
seizsure structural abnormality in brain 4-8 months
infantile spasms
infections of brain and spinal cord caused by
bacteria or viruses
inflammation of coverings of brain and spina cord
inflammation of brain tissue itself
congenital defect in bony structures with distensioin of meninges (covering layer of spinal cord) no abnormality of neural tissue
structural abnormalities chemical dysfunction inherited drug abuse brain injuries unknown
mental illness
disorder of brain and spinal cord central nervous systewm progressive damage to myelin outer covering of nerve cells
MS multiple sclerosis
autoimmune disease affects neuromuscular junction where muscles sreceive messages from nerves muscle weakness in face arms and legs
myasthenia gravis
complication fo diabets mellitus nerves are damaged hyperglycemia high blood sugar levels
diabetic neuropathy
pain follows pathway of specific nwerves
most common neuralgia affects main sensory nerve of face tics tic douloureux
trigeminal neuralgia three origins
malignant tumor of children from nerve tissues
general classification damage destruction of nerves not brain or spional cord
peripheral neuropathy
shaking tremor and difficulty walking movement and coordination
Parkinson's disease
abnormal electrical activity in brain
petit mal seizure
abnormal sensatioins nuimbness prickling tingling along extremities
viral infection poliovirus affects whole body paralysis or death
progressive weakness occurs 30 years after initial poliomyelitis attack
postpolio syndrome
acute brain inflammation and rapid accumulation of fat in liver children maybe use of aspirin during a viral illness
Reye's syndrome
same virus causes chikenpox re-emerging after many years
shingles herpes zoster
break in skull bones
skull fracture
break in bone with no damage to skin
linear or hairline
break in cranial bone resembling line
break crushed depression of bone toward brain
congenital defect insufficient closure of spine
spina bifida
congenital absence of spinal bones no expoosure of internal structures meninges or neural tissue
spina bifida occulta
brief sudden loss of consciousness
found in
Ashkenazi Jewish families early death
Tay-Sachs disease
involuntary movements lower face develop exposure to medications neuroleptics tongue thrusting repetitive chewing jaw swinging and facial grimacing
tardive dyskinesia
blood clot forms inside blood vessel or heart cavity
formation or presence of blood clot inside blood vessel or heart cavity
breaking up of blood clot
blood clot moves through bloodstream lodges in narrowed vessel blocks circulation
developing brain doesn't form defects face brain structure and function
general classification of disorders not brain or spinal cord
peripheral neuropathy

periphereal neuritis
complications from diabetics mellitus
diabetic neuropaphy
brief loss of consciousness
excessive ETOH consumption
great toe flexes toward top of foot other toes fan out when sole of foot is firmly stroked
Babinski's reflex children
brainstem auditory evoked response test
BAER test
what is BAER test
diagnose nervous-system abnormalities hearing losses assess neurologic functions changes and responses in brain waves clicking sound
localized collection of pus in brain from tissues disintegrated as result of infection
brain abscess
nuclear test evaluate abnormal brain tissue
brain scan
contrast material is injected into carotid and /or vertebral arteries in neck
cerebral angiography
lack of oxygen to brain
cerewbral hypoxia
cerebrospional fluid analysis
where does the CF flow
through skull and spine in subarachnoid space surrounding brain
what is CSF chemistry
analysis of fluid to look for things, proteien and glucose content diagnose disease
CSF chemistry also called what
Spinal tap ventricular puncture lumbar puncture cisternal puncture collecting a spinal fluid specimen
cisternal puncture
what is CT scan
computed tomo9graphy
what does a CT scan
head skull brain orbits eyes and sinuses
surgical procedure requires opening into skull
use of ultrasound to analyze structure of brain
how do brain cells communicate
producing tiny electrical impulses
describe EEG
electrodes placed on sscalp over area of brain detects and records electrical impulses in brain abnormalities detected by patteren of brain waves
what is MRI of brain
non-invasive procedure uses powerful magnets and radio waves to construct pictures of brain tissues
small piece of nerve for exam
nerve biopsy
what is NCV
nerve conduction test
describe NCV
test of speed of conduction of impules through a nerve
x-rays or CT scan of spine after dye has been inserted into spinal fluid
which X-ray most common
lumbosacral spine X-ray
another name for myelogram
cutting of nerves responsible for balance in order to relieve symptoms of vertigo
complication of sarcoidosis involving inflammation and avbnormal deposits in tissues of nervous system brain spinal cord and other nerves
PET scan
positron emission tomography
what is PET scan
X-ray to examine metabolic activity of brain structures
why is PET scan different from conventional or CT scans
Nuclear Radiology is sub-specialty of radiology radioisotopes radioactive forms of atoms introduced into bvody for imaging evaluating organ function localizing disease or tumors
Other names for PET scan
scintillation radionuclide organ imaging radioisotope radioactive uptake nuclear radiography nuclear medicine scan
neurologic test determine balance coodination eyes closed pushed test can detect dysfunction in pathways to and from cerebellum
Romberg test
operative procedure nerves cut preventing spasms prevention of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)
stimulation electrical impulses to nerve ending in specific area for pain relief
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
surgical procedure removing plaque material from lining of artery