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87 Cards in this Set

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The extensive intricate network of structures that activates, coordinates, and controls all of the functions of the body.
Nervous System
The nervous system ____ internal and external stimuli through the sensory organs.
receives (sensory organs= eyes, nose, mouth, ears, skin, taste buds)
The nervous system transmits messages to and from the ____
brain
The nervous system interoperates the transmitted messages, stores any needed information, and ____ any required responses.
coordinates
The nervous system ____ to internal and external stimuli through the motor organs.
responds
The nervous makes ____ and emotions possible
learning
Motor organs ___ something in the body.
moves
A ____ is a basic nerve tissue cell that is capable of transmitting nerve impulses.
neuron
A ____ neuron is afferent (aka affecter) and receives messages from all over the body and transmits them to the CNS.
sensory neuron
A ____ neuron is efferent (aka effecter) and transmits messages from CNS to all parts of the body.
Motor
An ____ conducts messages from sensory to motor
interneuron (associative neuron)
Sensory neurons sends messages to the ___.
brain
Motor neurons alerts the body to ____.
move
____ carries impulses TO the cell body
dendrite
Axons carry impulses ____ the cell body
FROM
What is the sending and receiving center for impulses?
the cell body
The space between the axon and the dendrites of ____ neurons through which nerve impulses travel is called a synapse.
adjoining
When a neuron receives a signal, it sends an impulse on the next neuron across the ____.
synapse
Impulses pass only in ___ direction: from dendrite to cell body to axon to dendrite and so on
one direction
When a nerve impulse is blocked, the blocking usually takes places at a ____.
synapse
A REFLEX IS AN ____ RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS.
INVOLUNTARY
Many reflexes do not involve action from the brain; instead, the affector/effector circuit is completed by a loop in the spinal cord which is the ____ ____.
reflex arc
The reflex arc consists of the ____ which provides the signal from sensory neuron into a spinal nerve and into spinal cord.
affecter
The reflex arc consists of the ____ which sends the impulse from a sensory neuron and passes it to the motor neuron.
interneuron
The reflex arc consists of the ____ which receives signal from motor neuron and results in muscle reaction
effector
One of the subsystems of the nervous system is the CNS which contains the ____ and ____ ____
brain and spinal cord
One of the subsystems of the nervous system is the ___ ____ ____ which are the cranial nerves (12) and the spinal nerves (31)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The PNS is composed of the ____ nervous system which connects CNS to skin and skeletal muscles voluntary response.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
The PNS is composed of the ____ nervous system which connects the CNS to visceral organs and has an involuntary response
Autonomic (ANS)
The autonomic nervous system breaks down into the ____ which is your fight or flight
Sympathetic
The autonomic nervous sustem breaks down into the ____ which restores homeostasis and conserves energy
parasynthetic
The brain is cover in ____ matter or the cerebral cortex
gray
Whats located beneath the gray matter?
White matter
____ ____ is also located deep inside the brain in the basal ganglia
Gray matter
The majority of blood supply in the brain is provided by the internal ____.
carotid
Three primary divisions of the brain are
forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
The forebrain is made of the ____
cerebrum
The midbrain is the ____ arc
reflex arc
The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, medulla, and the ____
pons
What is the largest portion of the brain?
cerebrum
The cerebrum is made up of two hemispheres which are divided by the ____ fissure
longitudinal
The right hemisphere of the cerebrum controls ___ and feelings
behavior
The left hemisphere is __% of the population.
90%
The left hemisphere of the brain controls ____ and analytical skills
speech
The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by the ____ ____
Corpus Callosum
The cerebrum is made up of several ____ and sulcus.
fissures (fissures=deep indentions and sulcus =shallow indentions)
What are the four lobes the cerebrum is divided into?
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe
The ___ lobe of the cerebrum controls judgement, voluntary muscle, speech, thinking, planing, and problem solving
Frontal
The parietal lobe controls the ___ sensory area. (such as pain, touch, temp, and interpretation)
somatic sensory area
The ___ lobe controls vision and visual perception
occipital lobe
The ____ lobes hearing, memory, smell and taste
temporal
There are __ ventricles in the brain
4
The fist 2 ventricles in the brain are know as the lateral ventricles and they are the ____ of the 4.
largest
The third ventricle of the brain is located where?
diencephalon
the fourth ventricle is locate in the ____ ____
brain stem
The ventricles produce and are filled with ___, which helps to support and cushion the brain and spinal cord against injury
CSF
Approximately 8ooml's of CSF is produced everyday and continual reabsorption of CSF by the ____ helps to keep a constant CSF pressure.
arachnoid
If a blockage occurs in the ventricle, ____ is a result. Treatment is surgical placement of a shunt.
Hydrocephalus
What is the second largest structure of the brain
cerebellum
The cerebellum is located inferiorly to the ____ lobe.
occipital
The functions of the cerebellum is to maintain body balance, ____, coordination, and muscle tone.
equilibrium
The ____ is made up of the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland.
diencephalon
The thalamus is the ____ center of sensory information
(in the diencephalon)
relay
The hypothalamus controls body ____, water balance, sleep, appetite, some emotions, and both division of the ANS
(in the diencephalon)
body temperature
The pituitary gland ____ ____.
(in the diencephalon)
secretes hormones
The pineal gland ____ ____.
(in the diencephalon)
secretes hormones
The brain stem is made up of
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
The medulla oblongata controls vital functions such as ____, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing
(part of the brain stem)
breathing
The pons relays impulses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum; AND the cerebrum and the ____.
(part of the brain stem)
medulla
The midbrain controls visual reflexes and moving ___ and eyes.
(part of the brain stem)
head
The spinal cord begins at the ____ ____ and terminates at L1 or L2
magnum foramen
The spinal cord is protected by the ____
meninges
The spinal cord serves as the spinal reflex center and conducts ____
impulses
At L1 the spinal cord fans out into the ____
caudaequina (horses tail)
How many spinal nerves are there?
31
The cervical nerves have __ pairs
8
The thoracic nerves have __ pairs
12
The lumbar nerves have __ pairs
5
The sacral nerves have __ pairs
5
The coccygeal nerves have __ pair
1
A network of nerves from several segments of the spinal cord that combine to form nerves to specific parts of the body.
Plexus
The cervical plexus is C1-__; phrinic nerve (diagram)
C4
The brachial plexus __-T1; axillary, radial, medican and, ulnar
C5
Lumbar plexus L1-__; femoral nerve
L4
Sacral plexus L4-__; sciatic nerve
S4
Coccygeal Plexus S4-__; coccygeal nerve
S5
Spinal anesthetics are usually given between the __ or __ or 4th or 5th lumbar vertebrae
3rd or 4th