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64 Cards in this Set

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What are the Adrenergic Agonists?
Sympathomimetic
- they mimic the sympathetic nervous system
-Fight of Flight
What is the reaction of adrenergic agonists (sympathomimetic)?
-bronchodialation
- vasoconstriction
- cardiac stimulant
- uterine relaxant
-decrease gastric motility
Adrenergic Agonists are similar to...?
Cholinergic Blockers
(parasympatholytic/ anticholinergic)
What are cholinergic agonists?
parasympathomimetic
What is the reaction of cholinergic agonists (parasympathomimetic)?
- bronchoconstriction
- vasodilation
- slows heart rate
- bladder relaxant
- reverse muscle relaxants
- Tx: myasthenia gravis
What are adrenergic blockers?
sympatholytic (destroy effects)
What are cholinergic blockers?
parasympatholytic/anticholinergic
What do Adrenergic Blockers do?
- bronchoconstriction
- vasodilation
tx: angina HTN
What do cholinergic blockers do?
- presurgical: dry mouth, decrease salivation
- increases heart rate
- GI relaxant
tx: diarrhea
4 side effects r/t cholinergic blockers
1. blurred vision
2. urinary retention
3. constipation
4. dry mouth
Adrenergic Blockers are similar to...?
Cholinergic Agonists
Medications used to treat Parkinson's disease.
Symmetryl
Parlodel
Levodopa
Carbidopa
Levodopa/Carbidopa = Sinemet
Symmetryl
Tx: viral, lessons tremors, slows destruction of dopamine.
Body can build up tolerance, use about 3 mo & start again later.
can inc. dose but inc. in side effects
Use cautiously w/liver disease, CHF & seizures (may cause seizures)
give with food in AM
Parlodel
Stimulates dopamine receptors in basal ganglia
SE: confused, dizzy, depressed, insomnia, GI upset
Levodopa
Crosses blood/brain barrier & turns into dopamine (dopamine does not cross barrier)
SE: N/V, anorexia, orthostatic hypotension
Carbidopa
- Crosses brain/barrier
- Doesn't make dopamine, but dec. breakdown of Levodopa
- can use less levodopa & less side effects happen
-Has no side effects when used alone
Levodopa + Carbidopa = Sinemet
-strengths for each drug must be ordered (10/100,25/100,25/250)
- less drug, less side effects
-in time body gets used to it
Side Effects of AntiParkinson's Drugs
-weakness
-dizzy
-light headedness
-confusion
-disorientation
-insomnia (big)
Anticholinergic Drugs
(Cogentin, Artane)
Alters excess amout of acetocholine
SE: confused, dizzy, depressed, insomnia, GI upset
-dec. rigidity, dec. sweating, dec. drooling, dec. tremors
-one used w/Sinemet
Meds used to treat seizures/convulsive disorders.
-Barbiturates (phenobarbital)
-Benzodiazepines (diazepam, clonazepam, clorazepate)
-Hydantoin/Dilantin
-Sussinimides (zarotin)
-Tegretol, Mysoline, valporoic acid/Depakene
Barbiturates (phenobarbital)
CNS depressent, long acting, rarely used alone, not used w/kids anymore
Benzodiazepines (diazepam/valium, clonazepam/clonapine, clorazepate/tranzene)
-Depress area of seizure
-never mix IV valium w/anything
SE: drowsiness, ataxia
Hydantoin/Dilantin
-Control all types of seizure, except petit mal
-Not given IM
-IV push w/NS only, slowly
-cardiac monitor for initial dose
-give w/food or milk
-can raise blood sugar
Succinimides (zarotin)
Petit mal seizures
Tegretol
(anticonvulsant)
-Rarely used alone, usually w/another anticonvulsant
-treat trigeminal neuralgia also
SE: liver/kidney damage
Mysoline
(anticonvulsant)
Rarely used alone.
Valporoic Acid/Depakene
(anticonvulsant)
More commonly used now.
Anticonvulsant side effects
sedation, n/v, indigestion, dizziness, HA
Medications used to treat sleep and sleep disorders.
-Barbiturates
-Benzodiazepines
-Paraldehyde
Initial Insomnia
inability to fall asleep
Intermittent insomnia
inability to stay asleep
Terminal insomnia
early awakening, can't fall back to sleep
Sedative
produces rest & relaxation
Hypnotic
produces sleep
Barbiturates (sleep)
Can depress activity in the brain of all excitable tissues
SE: dec. REM sleep cycle (not in it as long)
Barbiturates sleep Drugs
Pentothal-ultrashort, 30 secs
Nembutal, Seconal-short
Amytal, Butisol-intermediate
Phenobarbitol-long acting

SE: sedation, lethargy, menal depression, coordination, long acting meds may cause dyscrasias/diseases, monitor CBC
Benzodiazepines (sleep)
CNS depressant
-Ativan -Halcion
-Dalmane -Restoril
-Valium -Versed
Can cause physical & mental dependency, smoking=inc. metabolism of drug =inc dose=inc SE
Paraldehyde (benzodiazepine)
-Treat DT's
-liguid, disguise taste
-use glass container (drug adheres to plastic/foam)
Medications used to treat Motion Sickness
(anticholinergic)
-Dramamine
-Antivert
-Vistaril
-Scopolamine (patches)
Give 30-60 mins before anticipated travel
SE: sedation (major), blurred vision, constipation, dec. BP
Motion Sickness
Stimulation of the labyrinth (boney system in middle ear)
Medications to treat Pain
Opiate Agonists
-morphine
-demerol
-methadone
Opiate Agonists
(controlled substance)
Morphine Sulfate or similar action on the brain
-used to relieve acute/chronic, mod/severe pain
-may be used preoperative sedation or supplement anesthesia
-can cause physical dependence
Opiate Agonists
(controlled substance) expected actions.
Analgesia, suppress cough reflex, respiratory depressants, sedation/drowsiness
SE: drowsiness, sedation, n/v, constipation, urinary retention, physical addiction w/3-6 wks use
CNS Depressants have an additive effect causing...
resp. depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma and/or death
Trecan (po) antidote
Narcan (reverses opiate agonists)
Narcan (inj) antidote
Naloxone
Opiate Partial Agonist

(Buprenex, Stadol, Nubain, Talwin)
most effective for treatment of pain when used w/out prior administration of opiate agonists
Opiate Partial Agonist
side effects & nursing consideration
SE: N, dizziness, HA, sedation, clammy skin
NC: If given w/other CNS drugs will have an additive effect causing resp. depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma and/or death
Anti-inflammatory Agents
-Salicylates
-NSAIDS
-Cox 2 Enzyme Inhibitors
-Acetominophen
-Propoxyphene
Salicylates
Aspirin-inhibits the prostaglandin, Dolobid, Disalcid
-aspirin overdose=tinitus
-not sedating, long term analgesics, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, midl to moderate pain
NSAIDS
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
ibuprofen, indocin, naprosyn, anaprox, clinoril, tolectin
-same effects as aspirin
Cox 2 Enzyme Inhibitors
celebrex
-antiinflammatory response
Acetominophen
tylenal, datril
-pain & fever, used w/children
-mild-moderate pain
-adv. reaction=toxicity to liver
Propoxyphene
Darvan, Darvocet (cet means tylenol in it)
-a synthetic non-opiate analgesic
-inc. effect when given with ASA or tylenol
SE: GI upset, n/ rash, abd. pain
Propoxyphene antidote
Narcan
Cerebrospinal Stimulant (caffeine)
-orally, crosses blood/brain barrier
-inc. resp
-inc. HR
-hyperacid in stomach
Medicaitons used to treat Psychiatric Disorders
Major Tranquilizers
-phenothiazines
-
Major Tranquilizers
AKA neuroleptic agents, antipsychotic drugs
-used to treat severe mental illness (schizophrenia, OBS)
Phenothiazines

(thorazine, compazine, mellaril, prolixin, sparine, stelazine, trilafon)
Used for Dx of psychosis, severe anxiety & restlessness, n/v, hiccups
SE (minor): dyspnea, sedation, EPS, hypotension, rash, blurred vision, dry mouth, n/v/d, anorexia, impotence, amenorrhea, EKG chgs
Major SE of Phenothiazines
laryngospasm, respiratory depression, agranulocytosis, cardiac arrest, tachycardia
Thioxanthenes
(non-Phenothiazines)
Taractan, navane

same as Phenothiazines
Mild Tranquilizers

antianxiety agents, anxiolytics
Pathological anxiety, apprehension, chronic irritability, self-doubt issues, chronic nervousness
Vistaril
compliment other meds like narcotics, n/v, antihistamine, works well
Meprobamate, Miltown, Equanil
mild sedation, help w/anxiety, muscle relaxant, helpful when withdrawling from cigarettes