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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recieves information and transmits it to other cells
A structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside of the environment
Membrane. Also called plasma membrane
Structure that contains the chromosomes
Structure that performs metabolic activities
The sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules
Network of thins tubes that transpot newly synthesized proteins to other locations
Endoplasmic reticulum
Has its soma in the spinal cord. Recieves excitation from other neurons through its dendrites and conducts impulses along its axon to a muscle
Motor neuron
Specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of simulation
Sensory neuron
Branching fibers that get narrower near their ends
Short outgrowths of dendrites
Dendritic spines
Contains the nucleus
Cell body or Soma
Thin fiber of constant diameter that in most cases are longer than dendrites
Usually covers vertebrate axons
Myelin Sheath
Interruption in the myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
Point from which the axon releases chemicals
Presynaptic terminal. Also known as end bulb or bouton
Brings information into a structure
Afferent axon
Carries information away from a structure
Efferent axon
Cell's dendrites are entirely contained within a single structure
Interneuron or intrinsic neuron
The other major cellular components of the nervous system. Does not transmit information over long distances as Neurons do.
Glia (or neuroglia)
Star-shaped, wrap around the presynaptic terminals of a group of functionally related axons
Very small cells. Also removes waste materials as well as viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms. In effect, they function like part of the immune system
In the brain and spinal cord. Specialized type of Glia that build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain vertebrae axons
A type of astrocyte, guide the migration of neurons and the growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development
Radial glia
The mechanism that keeps most chemicals out of the vertebrae brain
Blood-brain barrier
Protein mediated process that expends energy to pump chemicals from the blood into the brain
Active transport
A simple sugar
A chemical that is necessary for glucose
A difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the cell
Electrical gradient
Meaning a difference in electrical charge between two locations
The difference in voltage in a resting neuron
Resting potential
Some chemical can pass through a membrane more freely than others
Selectively permeable
A protein complex that repeatedly transports three sodium ions into it
Sodium-potassium pump
The difference in distribution of ions across the membrane
Concentration gradient
Increased polarization
Reduction of its polarization
Any stimulation beyond a certain level produces a sudden massive depolarization of the membrane
Threshold of excitation
Rapid depolarization and slight reversal of the usual polarization
Action potential
Membrane channels whose permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane
Voltage-activated channels
Drugs, such as Novocain and Xylocaine, attach to the sodium channels of the membrane, preventing sodium ions from entering
Local anesthetic
The amplitude and velocity of an aciton potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it
All-or-none law
during which the cell resists the production of further action potentials
refractory period
the membrane cannot produce an action potential regardless of the stimulation
absolute refractory period
a stronger than usual stimulus is necessary to initiate an action potential
relative refractory period
A swelling where the axon exits the soma
Axon hillock
Describes the transmission of action potential down an axon
Propagation of action potential
An insulating material composed of fats and proteins
The jumping of action potentials from node to node
Saltatory conduction
Many neurons have only short axons, if any. They exchange information only with their closest neighbors.
Local neurons
Membrane potentials that vary in magnitude and do not follow the all-or-none
Graded potentials