Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Generally, what is the cause of a descending UTI?
cause of infection is above the kidney (ex. bacteremia)
What is the most common bacteria causing cystitis?
E. Coli
What composes the upper urinary tract?
kidneys and ureters
What composed the lower urinary tract?
bladder and urethra
Generally, how high would fever be for a patient with pyelonephritis? with cystitis?
• pyelopnephritis: > 102 ºF
• cystitis: < 101 ºF
What is the difference between simple and complicated UTIs?
• Simple infections occur in healthy urinary tracts and do not spread to other parts of the body; usually go away readily with treatment

• Complicated infections are caused by anatomic abnormalities, spread to other parts of the body, or are resistant to many antibiotics; more difficult to cure
True/False: A patient who has "honeymoon cystitis" will have nitrates and leukocytes in their urinalysis
• Honeymoon cystitis is mechanical
• there will not be nitrates or leukocytes in the urine
• The correct answer is: False
What people at increased risk for UTI?
• conditions that obstruct the urinary tract (ex. kidney stones)
• conditions that cause incomplete bladder emptying (ex. spinal cord injury, bladder collaspe after menopause)
• immunosuppressed
• men w/ an enlarged prostate
• sexually active women
• uncircumsized males
• women who use a diaphragm
What are symptoms of lower UTI (cystitis or urethritis)?
• cramping in the pelvic area or back
• discomfort or pressure in the lower abdomen
• fever (on occasion, usually < 101 ºF)
• painful, burning sensation
• pyuria
• urinary frequency
What are symptoms of pyelonephritis?
• chills and persistent fever (typically lasting more than 2 days)
• CVA tenderness
• increased need to urinate at night
• nausea/vomiting
• severe cystitis symptoms (frequency, irritation, strong-smelling urine)
What symptoms of UTI that may occur in the elderly, but not in younger patients?
• mental changes or confusion
• nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain
• cough

* classic UTI symptoms may be absent or altered
What are some bacteria that can cause uncomplicated UTI?
• E. Coli (most common)
• Enterococci
• Klebsiella
• Mycoplasma hominis
• Proteus mirabilis
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa
• Staphylococcus saprophyticus
• Ureaplasma urealyticum
Which bacterial cause of UTI is common in younger women and has a higher incidence in the summer and fall?
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Which bacterial causes of UTI are often found in older women?
Klebsiella and enterococci
Which bacterial cause of UTI is most often detected in hospital-aquired UTI?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Give an example of a bacteria that increases its virulence in an acidic environment
What are some other conditions that can present with UTI symptoms?
• bladder cancer
• kidney stones
• interstitial cystitis
• STDs (chlamydia or gonorrhea)
• tinning urethral & vaginal walls
• vaginitis
What is interstitial cystitis?
• an inflammation of the bladder wall
• symptoms are similar to cystitis, but no bacteria are present
Urine cultures are not routinely performed. Under what circumstances would you perform a urine culture?
• girl (younger than 2) has a high fever of unknown origin that lasts 2 or more days
• patient has severe UTI symptoms and urinalysis is negative
• recurrent infection
• suspected complications
How many colonies of bacteria must be present in a urine culture for a diagnosis of UTI?
• without symptoms: at least 100,000 colonies per mL of urine
• women w/ pain on urination: at least 100 colonies per mL of urine
• in men: at least 1000 colonies per mL of urine
How long will treatment be for men with a UTI?
7-14 days
What drug can be used to alleviate the burning pain during urination?
Pyridium 100 mg BID or TID for 1-2 days
Cipro has no activity against which organisms?
What is the dosing for Cipro?
250-500 mg PO BID for 7-14 days
What are drugs that may decrease GI absorption of Cipro?
• antacids
• iron salts
• zinc salts
Cipro or Levaquin can reduce the therapeutic effects of what drug?
Name a drug that may increase serum concentrations of Cipro or Levaquin
Cipro or Levaquin may increase toxicity of which drugs?
• anticoagulants
• caffeine
• cyclosporine
• digoxin
• theophylline
What is the adult dosing for Levaquin?
• 500 mg/d IV until patients improves clinically
• switch to PO to complete 7-day course
What is the adult dose for Rocephin?
• Uncomplicated infection: 250 mg IM once
• Severe infection: 1-2 g IV QD or divided BID

* do not exceed 4g/day
What are drugs that if coadministered will increase chances of nephrotoxicity?
• aminoglycosides
• amphotericin B
• cephalosporins
• penicillin
Which class of drugs can cause neuromuscular blocking effects?
Aminoglycosides, coadministered with this drug, can increase ototoxicity?
loop diuretics
What is the adult dose of Nitrofurantoin?
50-100 mg/dose PO Q6hrs