Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The kidney, as an endocrine organ, secretes what?
• renin
• erythropoietin
What is oliguria?
• decreased urine output
• output of 40-60 cc/hr
What can be produce a positive blood in the urine?
• intact erythrocytes
• hemoglobin (broken-up RBCs)
• myoglobin (can be caused by trauma)
Glucose in the urine above this level should be considered abnormal
above 0.3g/24 hr
Protein in the urine above this level should be considered abnormal
150 mg/24 hrs
What is a normal specific gravity of urine?
1.000 - 1.025
Urine sedimentation is used to look for what?
• crystals
• cells
• bacteria
• casts
What type of crystals are seen in acidic urine?
cystine and uric acid crystals
What type of crystals are found in alkaline urine?
calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate
Urinalysis shows mild WBC and intact RBCs. What differential diagnosis should be strongly considered until proven otherwise?
kidney stone
What are casts?
• elements, made of protein, formed in disease states
• associated with low intra-renal urine flow or heavy proteinuria
What are different types of casts?
• granular cast
• hyaline cast (devoid of cells)
• red cell casts
• renal tubular casts
• waxy cast
• white cell casts
What does the GFR measure?
GFR measures the amount of plasma ultra-filtrate derived from blood in a specified time period
What is a normal GFR?
115 - 125 ml/ml
How is urine concentrating ability measured?
• measure urine osmolality after 18-24 hours of water deprivation and again after the administration of 5 units of vasopressin
• urine reaches a specific gravity of 1.023 in 90% of normal individuals
How is urine diluting ability measured?
• measure urine osmolality and volume 5 hours after a water load of 20 ml/kg of body weight
• urine reaches a specific gravity of 1.003
What diagnostic study is used to assess kidney size and evaluate the collecting system?
renal ultrasound
What does a small kidney on renal ultrasound generally imply?
chronic renal disease
What radiologic test is used to assess the relative contribution of each kidney to overall renal function?
radionuclide scanning
When are MRIs useful for evaluating kidneys?
useful for evaluation of renal masses
What are indications for performing a renal biopsy?
• patients with proteinuria (Nephrotic syndrome), hematuria, or cast suggestive of glomerular diseases (Lupus)
• provides prognostic information
• useful in patients with renal symptoms but normal findings (such as normal urinalysis)