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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe the parenchyma and the stroma of neoplastic cells.
parenchyma: neoplastic cells that determines the tumor's biologic behavior. stroma: non neoplastic supportive tissue
define desmoplasia.
abundant collagenous stroma due to stimulation by parenchal cells
describe adenomas
benign epithelial neoplasm, forms glandular pattern, and/or is a tumor derived from glands. bronchial, renal, hepatic, thyroid
describe papilloma
benign epithelial neoplasm, produces micro or macro finger like, warty projections. breast, choroid plexus
describe cystadenoma.
benign epithelial neoplasm forming a cystic structure. common in ovary
describe papillary cystadenoma
beningn epithelial neoplasm forming a cystic structure and containing papillary projections on the internal surface
describe polyp.
neoplasm that produces visible projections above surfaces (colon, uterine, nasal). malignant polyps are better designated as polypoid carcinoma.
what are the connective tissue derivatives of mesenchymal origin and which is the mos common benign tumor in men.
fibroma, lipoma, chondroma, osteoma. (most common benign tumor in men)
what are the tumors of mesenchymal origin that are of endothelial or related tissue. which is the most common benign tumor in women.
hemangioma, lymphangioma, leiomyoma (smooth muscle, uterine leiomyoma is most common benign tumor in women), rhabdomyoma (striated muscle)
what tumors are composed of more than one neoplastic cell type but derived from one germ cell layer.
pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumor of salivary gland
this is a tumor composed of more than one neoplastic cell type derived from more than one germ layer. give common sites and characteristics of the tumor
teratoma. ovary, testis, and midline sites. may contain hair, teeth, bones, muscle, glandular epithelium and neural tissue
cellularly differentiate carcinomas and sarcoma.
carcinomas are epithelial in nature while sarcomas are derived from connective tissues.
describe the hydatidiform mole
benign neoplasm of the chorionic villi and resembles grapes grossly
what is a melanocytic nevus?
benign tumor of melanocytes
describe the histo look of squamous cell carcinoma and tissues commonly infected.
pavement epithelium and keratin pearls. lung, skin, cervix, esophagus
describe origin of adenocarcinoma and tissues that can have it.
arrises from glandular epi. can be lung, distal esophagus to rectum, pancreas, liver, breast, endometrium, ovaries, kidney and prostate
where can transitional cell carcinomas be found?
BLADDER, ureter and renal pelvis
what are common tissues for sarcoma and how do you name them?
fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, etc. add sarcoma to end of tissue to get the name
define choristoma.
ectopic rest of normal tissue, eg pancreatic tissue in Meckels diverticulum, adrenal tissue in renal capsul
define hamartoma
non neoplastic overgrowth of disorganized tissue indigenous to the particular site, due to aberrant differentiation. eg chondroma of the lung. totally benign
3 carcinomas that do not follow the usual naming rules (they do not end in carcinoma)
hepatoma, melanoma, seminoma
define hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia.
increase in cell size, increase in cell number, replacement of one tissue by another, cytologic abnormality which is a precursor of malignant neoplasm, loss of differentiation
define carcinoma in situ
dysplastic cells that involve the entire epithelial thickness but do not penetrate the basement membrane, this is a pre invasive stage
describe th differentiation of malignant tumors.
can be well to poorly differentiated
describe specefic histological findings in terms of the morphology of malignant cells
pleomorphism, hyperchromasia (increased DNA), increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio to 1:1 (normal is ~1:5), chromatin clumping, large nucleoli, atypical and bizarre mitosis, tumor giant cells, anaplastic cells growing in a disorganized fashion
describe the factors in rate of growth of tumors
benign grow more slowly than malignant, increased hormones means faster, increased blood supply, well differentiated grow slowly, poorly grows quickly
describe the number of primary vs secondary tumors
primary tumors seem to be singular while secondary tumors are usually multiple, not you can have multiple primary tumors
describe the pathways of spread of malignancy and what type of tumors spread in specefic ways?
seeding body cavities via exfoliation of malignant cells: primary ovarian cancers and peripherally located lung cancers. lymphatic spread which is the usual spread for carcinomas, spreads to nodes along drainage route, lung to hilar nodes and breast to axillary nodes. hematogenous spread is the usual mechanism for dissemination of sarcomas, cells that enter the vena cava go to the lung, note that renal and hepatocellular carcinomas can be lymphatic and hematogenous.
describe the different bone metastatses.
vertebral column is most common bone site due to the baston paravertebral venous plexus. osteoblastic metastases are radiodense, have increased serum alkaline phosphatase indicating reactive bone formation (eg prostate cancer). osteolytic metasteses are radiolucent, have pathologic fractures that are probly from induced osteoclasts, have hypercalcemia and can be from lung cancer. note there will be pain in the bone metastasis if treated with radiation.
describe the grading of tumor
based on degree of differentiation and number of mitoses, aggresiveness of neoplasm, four grades, I is well differentiated, IV is poorly differentiated
describe the staging of tumor
determines extent of spread, based on size, spread to lymph nodes, and presence or absence of metastasis. two systems are TMN staging and american joint commmittee on cancer staging.
geographic/ethnic factors for:
1. choriocarcinoma 2. prostate cancer 3. testicular CA 4. penile CA 5. urinary bladder CA 6. Burkitt lymphoma 7. multiple myeloma 8. CLL 9. nasopharyngeal 10. esophageal 11. stomach CA 12. colorectal CA 13. hepatocellular CA 14. skin CA 15. breast CA 16. cervical CA
1. pacific rim 2. american blacks 3. African blacks. 4. non existent in circumsized 5. squamous cell CA in area where schistosomal infection occurs. 6. Africa 7. American and S. African blacks 8. elderly in europe and north america. 9. EBV and far east 10. alcohol, tobacco, poor, african americans 11. japan 12, US in low fiber and high fat diet 13. hep B aflatoxin B in diet 14. color of skin and exposure to sunlight, new zealand and australia 15. north america and europe. 16. HPV and multiple sex partners
describe what cancers are associated with 1. cig smoke 2. sun 3. nitrosamines (smoked fish) 4. polyvinyl chloride and thorotrast 5. nickel, chromium, uranium, radon, beryllium 6. diethylstilbesterol 7. low fiber diet 8. high fat diet
1. CA of mouth, pharynx, larynx, lungs, esophagus, pancreas, and bladder. 2. SCC, BCC and melanomas of skin. 3. gastric adenocarcinoma 4. hepatic angiosarcomas 5. lung CA 6 clear cell CA of the vagina 7. adenocarcinoma of colon 8. breast cancer
most carcinomas occur when (age-wise)?
bw 55 and 74.
describe the tumors seen in infants under 1 yr.
neuroblastoma, wilms (nephroblastoma), rhabdomyosarcoma of head, neck, and GU tract, retinoblastoma. blastomas are tumors of immature cells that resemble fetal anlage or primodia of adult organs AKA small blue cell tumors
what are the cancers of children under 5 (in decreasing order)?
ALL, neoplasms of CNS, Burktt's lymphoma
common tumors of 6 to 15?
osteosarcoma, ewings sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and medulloblastoma
what is a common CA bw 25 and 40?
testicular germ cell tumors
what cancer has a biphasic age incidence?
hodgkins disease (20 and 60 yrs)
what are the inherited CA syndromes (AD)?
familial retinoblastoma, familial adenomatous polyposis (APC), multiple endocrine neoplasia, neurofibromatosis, li fraumeni syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, breast and ovarian tumors (BRCA1 and BRCA2), melanoma, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
traits of familial cancers?
early age onset, seen in 2 or more close relatives of index case, multiple and bilateral tumors, familial cancers are not associated with specefic marker phenotypes, sibs have relative risk bw 2 to 3.
what are the autosomal recessive syndrome that can lead to what cancers? what is a commonality bw them all?
characterized by chromosomal or DNA instability. xeroderma pigmentosa: BCC and SCC of skin. ataxia telangiectasia: acute leukemia. bloom's syndrome: acute leukemia. fanconis anemia: acute leukemia
what are 5 precancerous/acquired preneoplastic disorders?
chronic atrophic gastritis of pernicious anemia: gastric adenocarcinoma. actinic keratosis of skin: SCC. ulcerative colitis: adenocarcinoma of colon. chromosomal breakage syndrome: leukemia. leukoplakia of oral cavity, vulva, or penis: SCC