Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does cancer arise?
From damage to cells due to environment and genetics.
What do oncogenes do?
facilitate and encourage cancer growth

onco = cancer
What is an adenoma?
benign epithelial tumor in glands
What is a cystadenoma?
benign adenoma that makes large cysts in fat and ovary
Name 2 types of cystadenomas.
What is a papilloma?
benign epithelial tumor with fingerlike projections
What is a polyp?
benign tumor that reaches into mucosa and into lumen of hollow organs
Where do carcinomas come from? Are they benign or malignant?
epithelial cells

Where do sarcomas come from? Are they benign or malignant?
mesenchymal tissue

What is metastasis?
disorganization and abnormal growth of epithelial cells caused by disruption in cell maturation
What is the earliest form of a precancerous lesion seen in a biopsy?
low grade dysplasia
What is high grade displaia?
carcinoma in situ; high chance of turning into cancer but can still be treated
How do cancer cells spread?
penetrate BM to invade tissue
Grading of tumors refers to...
histological appearance (I-IV)
Stage is based on...
T- size of tumor
M- node involvement
M- metastasis
change from one mature cell type or another in response to chronic irritation, pathogen, or carcinogen
How do we treat metaplasia and why?
Treat by reserving damage in order to prevent change into dysplasia and cancer
What is the 2nd most common form of skin cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma
From what does squamous cell carcinoma arise?
abnormal disorganized new growth in a tissue or organ leading to formation of growth or mass
Is neoplasia malignant or benign?
Give an example of a benign neoplasm.
Melanocytic nevi
Can viruses cause neoplasms?
Do chemicals and toxins cause neoplasms?
Do diseases cause neoplasms?
HPV causes...
cervical and penile carcinoma
EBV causes...
burkitts lymphoma
HBV and HCV causes...
hepatocellular carcinoma
nitrosamines cause...
esophageal and stomach cancer
asbestos cause...
lung cancer
tobacco causes...
lung cancer
actinic keratosis causes
squamous cell carcinoma
ulcerative collitis causes
colonic adenocarcinoma
MG causes
thyroid carcinoma
dysplastic nevi cause
malignant melanoma
barret's esophagus causes
esophageal cancer
List 3 tumor suppressor genes.
BRCA 1 + 2
loss of Rb causes
breast and ovarian cancer are caused by loss of
BRAC 1 + 2
P53 controls
Gain of c-myc oncogene causes
burkitts lymphoma
gain of ras oncogene causes
colon cancer
Acute renal familiar is?
abrupt decline in renal fxn
Decreased renal blood flow leading to decreased glomerular filtration rate is called...
prerenal acute renal failure
prerenal renal failure can be due to...
cholesterol plaques
acute tubular necrosis, ischemia, or toxins cause...
intrinsic acute renal failure
intrinsic acute renal failure causes what to occur...
patchy necrosis
obstruction to tubules by debris
back flow of fluid across the tubule
decreaed GFR, granular or epithelial casts in urine
bilateral outflow obstruction due to kidney stones, benign prostatic hypertrophy or neoplasia is...
postrenal acute renal failure
what happens in chronic renal failure?
urine is not made and wastes are not excreeted
what happens as a result of chronic renal failure?
renal osteodystrophy
metabolic acudosis
Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of ...
Name 2 types of nephritic syndromes.
Nephritic syndrome is due to...
blood loss in urine
nephrotic syndrome is due to...
protein loss in urine > 3.5g
HTN, edema, urine sediments with hematuria and blood casts with proteinuria are seen in
hyperalbuminemia, hyperlipidiemia, and edema are seen in
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis is caused by what?
group A beta hemolytic streptococci
What type of glomerulonephritis is associated w/ pulmonary hemorrhages and iron deficiency anemia?
good pastures dz
what do tests show in good pastures?
+ antiglomerular basilar Ab
IgG in glomerular BM
pyelonephritis is...
urinary tract infection that reaches cortex of kidneys causing WBC casts in urine
protein malnutriotion
Kwashiorkor results in what findings.
skin lesions, anemia, edema, liver malfxn
Describe what a Kwashiorkor pt looks like.
small child w/ swollen belly
Marasmus is due to what?
protein calorie malnutrition causing tissue wasting. Pt shows wasting and wt loss.
Alcholics have what findings.
increase liver enzymes
increase GGT
decrease pyruvate dehyrdohenase
decrease vit B