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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
benign epithelial neoplasms
adenoma
papilloma
cystadenoma
papillary cystadenoma
polyp
adenoma
benign epithelial neoplasm from glands or forming glandular structures
thyroid, bronchial, renal tubular, hepatic cell adenomas
papilloma
benign epithelial neoplasm forming finger like projections or warty projections
choroid plexus papilloma, intraductal papilloma of the breast
cystadenoma
benign epithelial neoplasm forming from cystic structure; common site is ovary
papillary cystadenoma
papillary projections on its internal surface; ovary is common site
polyps
produce visible protrusion above the mucosal surface; colonic (tubular adenoma) and uterine; benign and malignant; malignant = polypoid cancers
mesenchymal tissues--benign
CT?
lipoma, fibroma, chondroma, osteoma
endothelial and related tissue
hemangioma, lymphangioma, meningioma
muscle?
smooth (leiomyoma), and striated (rhabdomyoma)
Lipoma
tumor of adipose tissue; well circumscribed mass of mature adipose tissue; cut surface is yellow; most common benign tumor in males
fibroma
benign mesenchymal tumor of fibrous tissue; seen in ovary
chondroma
tumor of hyaline cartilage; nodular configuration; well circumscribed nodules of hyaline cartilage with hyaline matrix and neoplastic chondrocytes in lacunae
osteoma
tumor of bone; composed of woven and lamellar bone
hemangioma
benign tumor of blood vessels; closely packed blood vessels on micro
lymphangioma
characterized by cystic or cavernous spaces; seen in skin or deeper regions of the neck, axilla, mediastinum, and retroperitoneum
leiomyoma
benign tumor of smooth muscle; uterus is common location; also noted in the GI tract; most common tumor in females
rhabdomyoma
benign mesenchymal tissue of striated muscle; heart is common site
hydatidiform mole
benign neoplasm of chorionic villi; grossly appear like bunch of grapes
melanocytic nevus
benign tumor of melanocytes
pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor)
from more than one cell type from one layer.
benign neoplasm of salivary gland (parotid); neoplastic cells have two different morphologic patterns but derive from same germ cell layer.
teratoma
from totipotent cell and is common in gonads; benign form is mature teratoma. dermoid cyst (mainly ectodermal differentiation); malignant form is an immature teratoma or teratocarcinoma
malignant tumors
mesenchymal?
immune system?
hematologic?
epithelial?
sarcomas
lymphomas
leukemias
carcinomas
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant epithelial neoplasm that arises from squamous epithelium; microscopically pavement epithelium and keratin pearls are noted; lung, skin, cervix, esophagus.
adenocarcinoma
malignant epithelial neoplasm that forms glands or arises from glandular tissue; colon, lung, stomach, endometrium
transitional cell carcinoma
malignant epithelial neo that arises from transitional epithelium; common site is urinary bladder
malignant mesenchymal tumors
(sarcomas)
lipo, fibro, chondro, osteogenic, angio, leiomyo, rhabdomyo
osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of bone; micro: malignant osteoid is noted; seen in young males
choristoma
ectopic rest of normal tissue//normal tissue misplaced within another organ. pancreatic tissue in Meckel's diverticulum; adrenal tissue in renal cortex
hamartoma
non=neoplastic overgrowth of disorganized tissue indigenous to a particular site; bronchial hamartoma that contains cartilage
dysplasia
loss of uniformity and architectural orientation; carcinoma in situ-- dysplastic cells that involve the entire epithelial thickness and do not penetrate the BM; pre-invasive stage
carcinoma in situ; can't tell which is top and which is bottom b/c epithelium looks similar throughout. has not invaded BM
what is this
differentiation and anaplasia
-extent to which parenchymal tumor cell resembles a comparable normal cell
-lack of differentiation and it is a feature of malignancy
benign tumors are well differentiated;
functional changes in malignant cells
well differentiated SCC produces keratin; hepatocellular Ca produces bile; endocrine tumors elaborate hormones
rate of growth?
correlates with degree of differentiation--slow with well differentiated and rapid with poorly differentiated
what is feature that differentaites benign from malignant?
local invasion
metastases
tumor implants discontinuous with the primary tumor; the presence of metastases indicates a tumor is malignant (rare benign metastasizing lesions have been reported)
pathways of spread
1. seeding
2. lyphatic spread
3. hematogenous spread
seeding of body cavities
malignant cells exfoliate from the surface and implant and invade tissue; primary ovarian cancers and peripherally located lung cancers
lymphatic spread
usual for carcinomas; spreads to nodes along route of drainage; lung to hilar nodes; breast to axillary nodes
hematogenous spread
usual for sarcomas; cells entering the portal vein go to liver; cell entering vena cava go to lung; renal cell and hepatocellular ca, lymphatic and hematogenous.
bone metastasis
vertebral column is most common site
osteoblastic metastasis: prostate ca, radiodensities, increased serum alkaline phosphatase indicates reactive bone formation
osteolytic: lung cancer; radiolucencies, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia
grade of cancer
based on degree of differentiation; correlates with aggressiveness; four grades; I is well differentiated and IV is poorly differentiated
stage of tumor
determines extent of spread; based on Tumor size, spread to lymph Nodes, and presence or absence of Metastases. two major staging systems; TNM staging; AJC
Dukes' for Colon ca
A: carcinoma limited to wall of GI tract
B: extends to pericolic fat
C: involvement of LN
D: visceral mets
predisposing factors
geographic/ethnic
environment/culture
age/childhood cancer
hereditary and cancer
nasopharyngeal
EBV, far east
esophageal
alcohol and tobacco, poor, african american
stomach
japan
colorectal
US, low fiber, high fat
hepatocellular
hep B, aflatoxin B in diet
skin
color of skin and exposure to sunlight; new zealand and australia
breast ca
north america and europe
cervix
HPV, multiple partners
choriocarcinoma
pacific rim
prostate
high in american blacks
testicular
high in african blacks
penile
nonexistant in circumscribed
urinary bladder
squamous cell ca in area where schistosomal infection
burkitt
common in africa
multiple myeloma
american and south african blacks
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
elderly in europe and north america
asbestos
lung, GI tract, pleural, and peritoneal mesotheliomas
alcohol
oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, hepatocellular
aflatoxin B
hepatocellular
arsenic
skin, lung, hemangiosarcoma
alkylating agents
acute leukemia
aniline dyes, aromatic amines, beta naphthylamine
TCC of bladder
benzene, ethylene oxide
acute leukemia
cigarette smoke
mouth, pharynx, larynx, lungs, esophagus, pancreas, bladder
sun
SCC, BCC, and melanomas of skin
mitrosamines (smoked fish)
gastric adenocarcinoma
polyvinyl chloride and thorotrast
hepatic angiosarcomas
nickel, chromium & uranium, radon, beryllium
lung
DES
clear cell Ca of vagina
low fiber diet
adenocarcinoma of colon
high fat diet
breast ca
hereditary and cancer
inherited cancer syndrome AD
familial cancers
AR syndromes of defective DNA repair
familial cancer
early onset; tumors arising in 2 or more close relatives of index case; multiple and bilateral tumors; not assoc with specific marker phenotypes; sibs have relative risk between 2-3
AR syndrome
XP- basal and squamous cell ca of skin
ataxia telangiectaia- acute leukemia
bloom's syndrome--acute leuk
fanconi's anemia-- acute leuk
chronic atrophic gastritis of pernicious anemia
gastric adenocarcinoma
actinic keratosis of skin
SCC
ulcerative colitis
adenocarcinoma of colon
chromosomal breakage syndrome
leukemia
leukoplakia of oral cavity, vulva, and penis
squamous cell carcinoma