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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vertebral level of hyoid bone
C3
Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage
C4-C5
Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage
C6
Superficial fascia of the neck contains which muscle
Platysma
Deep investing fascia splits to enclose which muscles
Trapezius and SCM
Covers muscles associated with vertebral column
Prevertebral fascia
Courses obliquely inferiorly across posterior triangle
CN XI
Anterior scalene
Middle scalene
Posterior scalene
Arises from aorta
Thyroid IMA artery
Ascends SCM in region anterior to the ear
External jugular vein
Great auricular nerve
Innevation of platysma
CN VII
Arise from thyrocervical trunk
Suprascapular artery
Transverse cervical artery
Inferior thyroid artery
Located posteriorly within carotid sheath
CN X
Innervates infrahyoid muscles
C1-C3
Arise from external carotid in carotid triangle
Superior thyroid
Lingual
Asscending pharyngeal
Facial
Occipital
Flexes neck, rotates head to opposite side
SCM
Provides anterior and posterior boundaries of pretracheal space
Infrahyoid fascia
Pretracheal fascia
Located between alar and prevertebral fascia
Danger space
ALl deep neck fascias meet here
Carotid sheath
Specialization of prevertebral fascia
Axillary sheath
SIbsons fascia
Forms external jugular vein
Posterior auricular
Retromandibular veins
Cord levels of nerves which innervate skin over shoulders and pectoral
C3-C4
Located along the lateral side of inernal jugular vein
Carotid sheath
Ansa cervicalis
SCM
Brachial plexus courses between these
Anterior and middle scalene
Assists in opening mouth (depresses mandible)
Mylohyoid
Anterior belly of digastric
Demarkates descent of thyroid gland
Pyramidal lobe
Innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve
Esophagus
Larynx
Trachea
Pierces thyrohyoid membrane
Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve
Superior laryngeal artery
Passes between internal jugular vein and internal carotid
CN X
Innervates thyrohyoid
C1
Origin of phrenic nerve
C3-C5
Cranial nerves involved with cervical plexus
CN XI
CN XII
Lymph drainage of head and neck is trying to reach this
Inferior deep cervical nodes
Travels with spinal accessory nerve
C3, C4
Borders thyroid laterally
Carotid sheath
Passes from carotid bifurcation to base of skull
Ascending pharyngeal artery
Name fascial layers of neck
Superficial
Investing
Infrahyoid (superficial and deep)
Pretracheal (+ buccophrayngeal)
Prevertebral
Carotid sheath
What fascia layers are directly opposed in posterior triangle
Investing and prevertebral
Which facial layers meet to encircle visceral structures of the neck
Pretracheal and buccopharyngeal
Suprasternal space is located where?
Where would infection go
Between layers of investing fascia
Infection would not go far
Pretracheal space - location where infection goes
Infrahyoid fascia in front, pretracheal behind
Infection will go to superior mediastinum
Retrovisceral space is where , infection?
Buccopharyngeal (covering of esophagus ) and alar fascia
Infection can go to lower cervical or upper thoracic regions, depending on where alar fascia attaches
Danger space is located where? Infection will spread to _
Between alar + esophagus and prevertebral fascia
Infection will spread to diaphragm
External jugular vein courses on top of _
SCM
What structure parallels external jugular vein
Superior auricular nerve
External jugular vein drains to _
Subclavian vein
Greater auricular nerve - what innervates, levels
Lower ear
C2-C3
Supraclavicular nerve - what innervates + levels
Shoulder
C3-C4
Transverse cervical nerve - what innervates + levels
Neck (anterior)
C2-C3
Lesser occipital nerve - what innervates + levels
Lateral occipital region
C2
From what structure do cutaneous nerves come
Cervical plexus
All cutaneous nerves emerge from _ behind _
Erb's point
SCM
Describe lymphatic drainage of neck
Drainage of deep structures (pharynx, larynx) goes to nodes that are close by (tracheal, pretracheal) and then go to deep cervical nodes. Drainage of superficial structures goes to superficial nodes first and then go to deep group, either superior and then inferior or directly inferior deep cervical nodes.
Deep group of lymph nodes sits along _
IJV
Describe path of spinal accessory nerve in neck
Leaves jugular foramen and is directed posterio-inferior under SCM and then across the occipital triangle to trapezius
CN XI innervates _ muscles via _ fibers
Trapezius and SCM
GSE
How do you test integrity of CN XI
Shrug shoulders and turn head against resistance
Boundaries of scalene triangle
Anterior and posterior scalene and clavicle
Contents of subclavian triangle
Brachial plexus and subclavian artery
Suprahyoid muscles with innervation
Digastric - anterior - V, posterior - VII
Stylohyoid - CN VII
Mylohyoid - CN VII
Geniohyoid - C1 via CN XII
Infrahyoid muscles with innervation
Omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid - ansa cervicalis
Thyrohyoid - C1 via CN XII
Location of thyroid
Tracheal cartilages 2, 3, 4
CN XII carries _ nerves
CN XI carries _ nerves
C1 to thyrohyoid and genohyoid
C3 and C4 to trap and SCM
What parallels carotid sheath and protects it
SCM
Carotid sheath attaches to _ superiorly and ends at _ inferiorly
Skull around jugular foramen
Adventitia of vessels
5 structures associated with carotid sheath superiorly
CN IX, X, XI, XII and superior cervical ganglion
COntents of carotid sheath
Internal and common carotid arteries
IJV
CN X
SUperior root of ansa cervicalis
Lymph nodes
Where do cell bodies of preganglionic nerves for head and neck
IML T1-T4
Ganglia associated with sympathetic trunk
External and internal carotid
Cardiac
Pharyngeal
Gray rami
Branch of external carotid artery related at its origin to CN XII
Occipital
Branch of external carotid that disappears deep to hypoglossus
Lingual
Which branches of external carotid artery can form common trunk
Lingual and facial
Which branches of external carotid form terminal branches
Maxillary and superficial temporal
Branches of vagus
Laryngeal - motor (SVE) to larynx and visceral (GVE + GVA)
Cardiac - all visceral
Pharyngeal - SVE, GVA, GVE
Branches of subclavian - part1, part2, part 3
Part 1 - vertebral , internal thoracic, thyrocervical
Part 2 - costocervical
Part 3- Descending scapular (if present)
Bifurcation of common carotid to internal and external occurs where
C4
Stellate ganglion block can cause what complication
Horners syndrome :
miosis - constriction of pupil
ptosis - drooping of eyelid
Loss of sweating on one side
If you damage CN XI, which muscle is out and what are you unable to do
Trapezius
Unable to abduct arm beyond horizontal
Main structures of anterior triangle
Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
CN X
Ansa cervicalis
Sympathetic trunk
CN XII
Posterior triangle main contents
Subclavian artery
EJV
Cervical plexus
Brachial plexus
Phrenic nerve
CN XI
Blood supply of thyroid
External carotid - superior thyroid artery
Subclavian and thyrocervical trunk - inferior thyroid artery
Sometimes from arch of aorta through thyroid IMA artery (10 % of people)
Venous drainage of thyroid
Superior
Middle and inferior thryoid veins - empty to IJV
What can be damaged during thyroidectomy
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Parathyroid glands
R vs L differences in lymph drainage
Left - thoracic duct
Right - right lymphatic trunk
What is on left lateral side of esophagus
Thoracic duct