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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
necessary condition
must be satisfied for the statement to be true.

EX. the ability to breathe is necessary to stay alive.
sufficient condition
guarentees the statement will be true.

jumping is sufficient to leave the ground, since the act of jumping causes one to leave the ground.
probabilistic causation
war does not cause deaths, smoking does not cause cancer.
what criteria do scientists use to establish a causal relation between two concepts?

temporal order

control all other variables (hardest)
path model
shows hypothesized causal relations among a set of variables.

scientists construct such models to rep hypotheses and then later to summarize the results of their research.
two main strategies for studying causal hypotheses
1. randomized trial - emphasizes ruling out variable to isolate cause.

2. longitudinal designs - emphasizes temporal order.
randomized trial accomplishes two things
1. makes the groups approx equal on everything.

2. the differences between the groups that remain are due to chance.
RCT, randomized control trial
scientific procedure most commonly used in testing medicines or medical procedures.
types of randomized trials
open, single blind, double blind