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300 Cards in this Set

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ratio vs. interval reinforcement schedule
ratio - based on number of responses
interval - based on time elapsed
fixed vs. variable
reinforcement schedule
fixed - implies reinforcement always (takes place after fixed number or time)
variable - implies an average number or time frame is used
Premack principle
"an efficient reinforcer is what the client likes to do"
LPB - low probability behavior
HPB - high probability behavior
higer order conditioning
when a new stimulus is paired with CS and the new stimulus takes on the power of the CS
operant
B.F.Skinner.
a behavior which is not elicited by an obvious stimulus
(vs. respondant - consequence of a known stimulant)
Robert Carkhuff
creator of 5 point scale: empathy, genuineness, concreteness, respect
congruence
genuine, real, authentic
(characteristic of counselor)
biofeedback device
does not change client, but provides biological information.
used primarily to teach clients to relax or to control ANS function.
Robert Kegan
"holding environment" (in counseling)
client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction
suggests 6 stages of life span development (incorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal, institutional, and interindividual)
maturational view
(that of plant growth)
mind driven by instinct. the environment provided nourishment, placing limitations.
counselors allow clients to work through early conflicts
equilibration
Piaget.
balance between assimilation (taking in new information) and accommodation (modification of cognitive structure)
critical period
Konrad Lorenz.
makes imprinting possible.
signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned or it wont be learned at all
learned helplessness
Martin Seligman.
a pattern in which a person is exposed to situations that he is truly powerless to change.
believes he has no control
fixation
Freud.
when development comes to a halt... when frustration and anxiety are too great... the client remains in a stage where he feels safe
Daniel J. Levinson
80% of men experience moderate-severe mid life crisis.
views the crisis as somewhat (+), pointing out that men who do not face it may stagnate
Eric Erikson.
view of ego identity
ego strives to produce a unique autonomous self. it is not content with the mere assimulation of parental views
BASIC-ID
Arnold Lazarus
behaviorist approach. feels couneling is multimodal, relying on a variety of therapeutic techniques:
Behavior
Affective response
Sensations
Imagery
Cognitions
Interpersonal relationships
Drugs
symbolic schema
Piaget.
preoperational stage
a cognitive structure that grows with life experience
allows language and symbolism in play to occur
centration
Piaget.
preoperational stage
focusing on a key figure of a given object while not noticing the rest of it
Konrad Lorenz
ethnology - the study of animal behavior in their natural environment
*imprinting - instinct... infant instinctively follows the first moving object it encounters
illustrated the point of "critical periods"
empiricists
(-> behaviorism)
believe development consists of quantitative changes.
scientists can only learn from objective facts
experience is the source for acquiring knowledge
organismic theorists
qualitative (measure of internal changes) rather than quantitative
sensorimotor
Piaget
0-2 years
reflex
"practical intelligence"
object permanance (>8 months)
representational thought
concept of time (one event takes place before or after another)
causality
instinctual
behavior than manifests itself in all normal members of a given species (innate, unlearned behaviors)
duty to warn
Tarasoff
a client in immeinent danger to self or others (may contact anothr party to prevent the dangerous situation)
privileged communication
CLIENT chooses disclosure
anything said to a counselor by a client will not need to be divulged outside the counseling setting
*qualified - exceptions may exist
DMS-IV
multi-axial classification
I-clinical syndromes, V codes
II-developmental / personality disorders
III-physical disorders / conditions
IV-severity of psychological stressors
V-GAF
V codes
the focus of treatment, but not attributable to a mental condition
(marital problems, malingering, etc... day to day problems, not psychological disorders)
CPT
current procedural terminology
includes the nature of the treatment; may include length of service time
mental health consultation
Caplan
consultant does not see the client directly, but advises the consultee
(recommends the consultant be responsible for the clients welfare)
SCII
Strong Interest Inventory
measures interest, not ability
based on Holland's typology
untimed
forced choice format (like, indifferent, unlike)
Kuder Career Search
Interest Inventory
ASVAB
DAT
GATB
Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Battery
Differental Aptitude Test
General Aptitude Test Battery (used by state employment)
trait factor theory
Parson, Williamson, Patterson
assumed that via psychological testing one's personality could be matched to an occupation which stressed those particular traits
trait-factor approach
Parsons, Williamson, Patterson
attempts to match worker and work environment (job factors)
relies heavily on testing
*one time process
structural theory
differential psychology
Holland
believed personality must be congruent with the environment
6 personality types:
Realistic - machines
Investigative - research, think
Conventional - conform, structure, rules
Enterprising - leaders
Artistic -
Social - interpersonal skills
Donald Super
career development... longitudinal, reversible
emphasizes self-concept
5 life stages:
Growth
Exploration (15-24y)
Establishment (24-44y)
Maintenance (44-64y)
Decline (65+)
Anne Roe
personality theory of career development
based on a premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need
(8) fields / (6) levels
Anne Roe
career choice influenced by:
genetics
parent-child interaction (parenting styles)
unconscious motives
current needs
interests
education
intelligence
Maslow's hierarchy
Roe's parenting styles
overprotective
avoidant
acceptant
one develops a personality that gravitates (or not) to others
A.A.Brill
personality theory of career choice
*psychoanalytic
brings Freud's theory to career counseling - emphasizes sublimation (when one expresses an unacceptable need in a socially acceptable manner)
sublimation
expresses an unacceptible need in a socially acceptible manner
Tiedman
O'Hara
decision making theory of career choice
*individual has the power to choose
(1) anticipation
(2) implimentation / adjustment
John Krumboltz
behavioristic model
social learning approach to career choice (bandura)
*modeling
*decision making is a skill that can be learned
Edwin Bordin
emphasized unconscious mind career choice could solve unconscious conflicts (similar to Roe)
*psychoanalytic

difficulties related to job choice are indicative of neurotic symptoms
Henry Murray
"needs-press" theory
*the occupation is used to meet a person's current need

TAT projective test
pioneers of developmental approach to career counseling
Eli Ginzberg
Sol Ginsburg
Sidney Axelrod
John Herma
longitudinal approach to career counseling
Super
Tiedman
O'Hara
John Crites
research in career maturity
Gelatt Decision Model
information is the fuel of the decision. although career choice is ongoing, there are times when a key decision must be made
information can be organized into three systems:
predictive (probable alternatives, actions)
value (preference)
decision (rules for evaluation)
DOT
Dictionary of Occupational Titles
9 digits
first three: occupational group
second three: tasks / skills
last three: alphabetize
OOH
Occupational Outlook Handbook
highlights: factors of the job, necessary training, earnings
*easiest guide to read
GOE
Guide for Occupational Exploration
12 interest areas
contrast effect
interviewers perception of interviewee affected by previous
compensatory effect
compensates for things not allowed at the job
spillover effect
engages in activities similar to work in leisure time
culture
that which distinguishes one group from another (that which characterized a group):
customs, values, attitudes, beliefs
contextualism
behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which it occurred
frustration-aggression theory
Dollard / Miller.
frustration - occurs when one is blocked so cannot reach one's goal
cognitive-dissonance theory
Festinger.
dissonance - state of inconsistency / incompatibility
reduced by denial
folkways vs. mores
folkways - describe correct, normal habitual behavior (embarrased by violating)
mores - beliefs re: rightness or wrongness of a behavior (punished by violating)
social distance scale
Bogardus.
how one feels toward other ethnic groups (racial, national, religious, linguistic, cultural)
culture vs. society
culture - defined by norms and values (found within a society)
society - self-perpetuating independent group who occupies a difinite territory
Ethnocentrism
view self as superior.
to use one's own culture as a yardstick to measure others. based on opinion
leads to patriotism, stability, pride
social exchange theory
a relationship will endure if rewards > costs
balance theory
(in social psychology). Festinger
cognitive dissonance theory
balanced cognitive state (replace inconsistency with consistency)
minimize dissonance
best predictors of retirement adjustment
financial security
health
therapeutic surrender
the client psychologically surrenders himself to counselor of different culture... becomes open with feelings / thoughts
connotation
emotional content of the word
"semantic differential"
emic
viewpoint
an anthropological term based on "emigration"
each client is an individual with individual differences
(vs. etic)
etic
viewpoint
humans are humans (treat each client the same, regardless of individual differences)
(vs. emic)
autoplastic
means of coping: change comes from within
(vs. alloplastic)
alloplastic
means of coping: change / alter external factors
(vs. autoplastic)
personalism
perception of client:
all people must adjust to environmental and geological demands
*see the client who has learned a set of survival skills rather than a diseased client
Stanley Milgram
obedience / authority in social settings
Osgood and Tannenbaum
Congruity Theory
attitudes that change the most are less extreme
strong beliefs... less likely to change attitude about
attitude = neutral... greater likelihood of change
Milton H. Erickson
brief psychotherapy
innovative techniques in hypnosis
Arnold Lazarus
behaviorist
BASIC-ID
multimodal treatment
known for initial work in systematic desensitization
Piaget
stages:
cognitive development
sensorimotor
preoperation (2-7y)
concrete operation (7-11y)
formal operation (12+)
conservation
concrete operation
the knowledge that a substance's weight, mass, and volume remain the same even if it changes shape
reversibility
concrete operation
one can undo an action - an object can return to its initial shape
egocentrism
preoperational stage
the child cannot view the world from the vantage point of someone else
Lawrence Kohlberg
stages:
moral development
preconventional (respond to consequences)
conventional (wants to meet standards of society, conform)
postconventional (self accepted morality, universal, ethical principles)
counterconditioning
behaviorist technique
goal: weaken or eliminate a learned response by pairing it with a stronger or desirable response
Harry Stack Sullivan
stage theorist
psychiatry of interpersonal relations
John Bowlby
bonding and attachment
(adaptive significance)
must bond <3 years, if severed "object loss" -> psychopathology
Harry Harlow
maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys
attachment - innate tendency
(preferred terry cloth over wire mother)
stage theorists vs. developmentalists
stage - believe qualitative change between stages
developmental - continuous process, begins at conception, cephalocaudal
preconventional
Kohlberg (moral development)
Punishment / Obediance
Hedonism Orientation
conventional
Kohlberg (moral development)
Good Boy / Good Girl
Authority. Law. Order
post conventional
Kohlberg (moral development)
Accepted Law. Social Contract
Self Conscience. Universal ethics
Oedipus Complex
Freud
fantasy of sexual relations with opposite sex parent
phallic stage
leads to tension > wish to kill > identity with parent of same sex > values. conscious
Gibson
researched depth perception using a cliff
conceptualization of the unconscious mind
Freud
Eros vs. Thanatos
love of life
death
introjection
incorporate others views as one's own
denial
conscious act of denying an item's existance
displacement
impulse unleashed at a safe target
sublimation
when a person acts out an unconscious impulse in a socially acceptible manner
rationalization
intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings
compensation
overdevelop a trait to make up for negative shortcomings
repression
truly forget - automatic, involuntary
projection
attribute unacceptible qualities of self to other
reaction formation
cannot accept impulse - acts in opposite manner
identification
identifies with cause - hope to be perceived in positive light
successful resolution of Oedipus Complex
identification with aggressor (parent of same sex)
*leads to development of superego
unconscious mind
Freud.
information normally unknown or hidden from the client
preconscious mind
Freud.
capable of bringing ideas into awareness with minimal difficulty. can access conscious and unconscious minds
conscious mind
Freud.
aware of immediate environment
ego defense mechanisms
unconscious strategies to control tension, relieve anxiety.
distort reality
based on self-deception to protect self-image
psychosexual stages
Freud
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
operant conditioning
B.F.Skinner
instrumental learning
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
"reflexes"
respondent behavior
free association
analytic technique
instructing the client to say what comes to mind
Anna O
patient of Joseph Breuer
suffered from symptoms without organic basis - hysteria
after hypnosis, could talk
-> catharsis (talking cure)
interpretation
(purpose:)
make the client aware of unconscious process
SUDS
Subjective units of distress scale
form hierarchy to perform Wolpe's systematic desensitization
a behavior therapy technique for curbing phobic reactions
created via the process of introspection
mandalas
Carl Jung
drawings balanced around a center point
self-unification (magic protective circle)
Eidetic imagery
ability to remember minute details for an extended period of time
"photographic memory"
gone by the time a child reaches adolescence
Carl Jung
analytic psychology
archetypes - inherited unconscious factors
personality factors->MBTI
learning (3 types)
reinforcement (operant conditioning)
association (classical conditioning)
insight
Alfred Adler
individual psychology
-sibling interaction may have more impact than parent / child interaction
-strive for superiority
-"will to power"
-thirst for perfection
Eric Berne
Transactional Analysis
3 ego states:
Child
Adult
Parent
structural theory
Little Hans
psychoanalytic explanation of fear (explained using Oedipus Complex and castration anxiety)
(in opposition to Little Albert - behaviorist view)
Neo-Freudians
stress social factors
A.Adler
K.Horney
E.Erikson
H.Stack Sullivan
E.Fromm
Joseph Breuer
"talking cure"
work on hysteria
insight
process of making a client aware of something which was previously unknown
increase self-knowledge
(technically, the term comes from W.Kohler (Gestalt theorist))
Analytic movement
(theorists:)
Freud
Jung
Adler
id
Freud.
pleasure principle
chaotic
instincts
ego
Freud.
reality
personality
superego
Freud.
conscience / morals
values
perfection
ideal
Joseph Wolpe
systematic desensitization
behaviorist technique
decreased reaction to anxious-producing stimuli (ameliorate phobic reactions)
based on counterconditioning
TAT
Henry Murray 1938
Thematic Apperception Test
projective test
Rudolph Dreikurs
student of Adler
first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice
-> school setting
intoversion
extroversion
Jung
personality types of MBTI
unconditional positive regard
counselor accepts the client without stipulation
non-directive
client-centered
person-centered
confrontation
illuminate discrepancies between clients and helpers view
Behaviorists
do not believe in mental constructs...
feel if it cannot be measured, it does not exist
tend to emphasize the power of the environment
strive for system reduction
do not believe in symptom substitution
obtain baseline measures.
Frederick Thorne
eclictic
Rollo May
existential counseling
E.G.Williamson
MN Viewpoint
match client traits with career
"trait-factor"
B.F.Skinner
reinforcement theory
"responses accompanied by satisfaction are repeated"
instrumental learning
reinforcers
tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur
(+)something is added after operent
(-)something is taken away
punishment
decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
stimulus generalization

stimulus discrimation
second order conditioning

respond only to specific stimuli
extinction
reinforcement is withheld and eventually the behavior will be extinguished
CS is "not" reinforced via the US
CR is suppressed
psychoanalysis...
(different than dynamic couseling)
more sessions
utilizes the couch
not face to face
Daniel P. Schreber
"Memoirs of Mental Patient"
Freud's view: stuggle with homosexuality
factors negatively impacting social influence
competence
power
intimacy
counselor's social power or social influence is related to:
EAT:
Expertise
Attractiveness
Trustworthiness
triadic consultation
consultant works with a mediator to provide services to a client
process consultation
focus is NOT on the content of the problem, but on the process used to solve the problem
"doctor patient" model of consultation
Schein
consultation is paid to diagnose the problem and prescribe a solution
focus: agency, not individual
behavioral consultation
"social learning model"
consultant designs behavioral change models for the consultee to implement
mental health consultation
Caplan
"psychodynamic"
consultant does not see the client but advises the consultee
Person-Centered
reflection vs. advice
*Conditions for Growth:
Empathy
Genuineness / Congruence
Unconditional (+) regard
-> self actualization
Carl Rogers
existential / humanistic
Person-Centered
retroflection
act of doing to self what you would like to do to others (Gestalt)

unfinished business
unexpressed emotions
Gestalt:
(word came from Wertheimer)
form, figure, or configuration unified as a whole
-here and now
-experience
-stay with the feeling
-"I" stattements
-psychodrama - role playing (experiment, exercise)
Carkhuff... Gazda
core dimensions (qualities) (+) therapeutic outcomes
[5 point scale]
empathy
genuineness
concreteness
respect
Fritz Perls
Gestalt Therapy
empty chair technique (individual can work on opposing feeling); underdog; topdog
use exaggeration
Donald Meichenbaum
cognitive restructuring
"Self Instructional Therapy"
stress inoculation techniques:
educational, rehearsal, and application phases
Aaron Beck
cognitive therapy
(differs from REBT)
dysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad though not necessarily irrational
RBT
Maultsby (studied with A.Ellis)
Rational Behavior Therapy
written self analysis
didactic role = counselor
systematic desensitization
(steps:)
Joseph Wolpe
relaxation training
construction-anxiety hierarchy
desensitization in imagination
in vivo desensitization
therapeutic cognitive restructuring
(REBT)
irrational thinking - core of emotional disturbance
*cognitive dispution*
refuting irrational ideas and replacing them with rational ones
REBT
ABC
DE
Affecting event
Belief system
Consequence (emotional)
Disputing the irrational belief
Effective new philosophy
Epictetus
"people are disturbed not by things, but by the views they take of them"
REBT
Albert Ellis
REBT
assumes client's emotional disturbance is the result of irrational thoughts annd ideas
Reality Theory
(client-counselor relationship)
William Glasser
like a friend asking what is wrong
client and counselor be persistent and never give up
past... not a primary focus, successful behaviors
little use of diagnostic labels
William Glasser
Reality Theory
incorporates control theory (choice theory)
perception controls our behavior
rational emotive imagery
used by REBT
client imagines situations that has caused emotional disturbances, imagines change feeling using rational, logic, scientific thought
pioneers in behaviorism
Pavlov
Jones (Mary Carver)
Watson
E.Thorndike
"law of effect"
trial and error learning
assumes that (+) associations related to given behavior > "stamped in"
(-) > "stamped out"
Mary Carver Jones
learning - could serve as treatment for phobic reaction
Neal Miller
*biofeedback
first to demonstrate that animals could be conditioned to control autonomic processes
Skinner vs. Pavlov
operant conditioning (instrumental)

classical conditioning (respondent)
extinction
ignoring a behavior... it will go away in time
(it will get worse before it gets better)
client is isolated from the reinforcement
Yerkes-Dodson Law
a moderate amount of arousal actually improves performance
averse conditioning
pair (behavior item) with aversive stimulus to decrease satisfaction
existential vs. behaviorist
focus on hear and now - what the person can become, philosophy of helping, abstract, non-systematic, vague re: technique and procedures, rejects traditional diagnosis and assessment
Viktor Frakl
logotherapy - one has choices and cannot blame others or childhood for lack of fulfillment
existential philosophy
healing through meaning
paradoxical intention
advise client to purposely exaggerate a dysfunctional behavior in the imagination
(behaviorist)
covert sensitization
"imagine"
implosive therapy
T.G.Stampft
conducted in the imagination
flooding
in vivo
deliberate exposure to the feared stimuli with response prevention
(avoiding the fear > intensify it)
punishment
decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
effects are usually temporary
it teached aggression
does not cause one to unlearn the behavior
empathy vs. sympathy
the ability to experience another person's subjective experience / world and communicate that

compassion (it may imply pity)
Robert R. Carkhuff
scale for measurement of empathic understanding in interpersonal processes
1-5
Eric Berne
Transactional Analysis (TA)
(cognitive approach, intellectual)
incorporates Gestalt Therapy
(experimental, affect)
Parent
E.Berne
"ought / should"
composed of values internalized from significant others
Nurturing or Critical
(superego)
(exteropsyche)
Adult
E.Berne
processes facts not feelings
(ego)
(neopsyche)
Child
E.Berne
(id)
(archaeopsyche)
Natural, Little Professor, Adapted
existentialism
stress: growth and self-actualization
*self determination
counselor helps the client discover meaning in life by doing a deed or suffering
rejects analysis and behaviorism for being deterministic and reductionistic
Alfred Adler
lifestyle is a predictable self-fulfilling prophecy based on our psychological feeling of ourself.
behavior must be studied in a social context
-lifestyle
-birth order
-family constellation
-organ inferiority (and the individual attempts to compensate)
-people wish to belong
-social connectedness
Moreno
group therapy
around 1960
theorist...
preface to group therapy
Adler
"man's problems and conflicts are recognized in their social nature"
groups
(three levels)
primary - preventive. attempt to ward of problems and minimize the occurrence of difficulty
secondary - problem is present. attempt to lessed the severity / length of the problem
tertiary - deals wth individual difficulties / longstanding
content vs. process
content - material discussed
process - the manner in which the discussion and transaction occur (analyzing communication, transaction, interaction)
groups
(three types)
guidance - primary group. structured. preventive
counseling - focus: conscious concerns
therapy - psychodynamic. tertiary group
structured vs. unstructured
(-) less effective, pass over group stages
(+) speed up interaction and focus
horizontal vs. vertical
approach the group as a whole (interpersonal)
approach individuals in the group (intrapersonal)
cohesiveness
forces which bind group members together
norms
govern acceptible rules / behavior
stages of group formation:
forming
storming
norming
performing
adjourning
difficulty index
indicates the percent of individuals who answer each item correctly
test format:
normative
can be compared to others taking the text
percentile rank
test format: ipsative
each item is independent of all other items
a client cannot be compared to others who have taken the test
(compares traits within the same individual)
achievement test
measures maximum performance
personality test
inventory
measures typical performance
spiral test
items get progressively more difficult
parallel form
two versions or forms are interchangeable
same mean and standard error
validity
measures what it says it measures
MOST IMPORTANT
reliability
how consistent a test measures an attribute
content validity
(rational, logical)
how well the test examines or samples the behavior
construct validity
a test's ability to measure a theoretical construct (intelligence, self esteem, mechanical ability) *any trait you cannot "directly" measure or observe
predictive validity
empirical validity
reflects the test's ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria
criterion validity
concurrent
predictive
synthetic validity
researcher looks for tests that have been shown to predict each job element
incremental validity
describes the process by which a test is refined and becomes more valid as contradictory items are dropped.
refers to test's ability to improve predictors (gives information that other tests do not)
face validity
refers to the extent that a test looks or appears to measure the intended attribute
concurrent validity
how well the test compares to other instruments that measure the same behavior, construct, trait
convergent validity
a method used to assess a test's construct / criterion validity by correlating test scores with an outside source
discriminant validity
the test will not reflect unrelated variables
a RELIABLE test is not always VALID
a VALID test is always RELIABLE
test-retest reliability
give same test to same group 2 times, then correlate the scores (OK for items that remain stable: IQ; not for MOOD or MEMORY)
tests for stability
equivalent / alternate form reliability
give the same population alternate forms of identical test
parallel forms
must have counterbalancing
split half method
individual takes the entire test as a whole, then divided in half
inter-rater / inter-observer reliability
utilized with subjective tests to ascertain whether the scoring criteria are such that 2 persons -> roughly the same score
reliability coefficient
1=perfect score - no error.
only with physicial measures

.9=excellent psychological test
.8=acceptable level of variance
(20% can be accounted for by error)
true variance
percentage of shared variance - the level of the same thing measured by both tests
*square the correlation "coefficient of determination"
Frances Galton
concluded that intelligence is normally distributed like height and weight
primarily genetic
Charles Spearman
felt intelligence was best explained via a 2 factor theory
G=general ability
S=specific ability
J.P.Fuilford
isolated 120 factors > intelligence
convergent - taking a number of thoughts and coming up with a single idea
divergent - coming up with a novel idea
Kudar Richardson coefficient of equivalence
internal consistency reliability
inter item consistency
also: Cronbach's alpha coeffieient
IQ
Intelligent Quotient
MA x 100%
CA
SAS - standard age score
mean = 100
SD = 15
WPPSI-R
WAIS-III
WISC-III
3-7y
adults
6-16y
Wechsler IQ
WAIS-III
individual test
"performance" and "verbal" skills
mean = 100
SD = 16
John Entl
claimed he invented an electronic machine to analyze neural efficiency to take the place of paper/pencil IQ tests
Raymond B.Cattell
fluid - inherited neurological intelligence, declines with age, not dependent on culture
crystallized intelligence - from experience, culture, education
Arthur Jensen
Black vs. White controversy
1969
whites scored 10-15 points higher on IQ
psychometric
any form of mental testing
16 PF
Raymond B.Cattell
16 personality factor questionnaire
MBTI
reflects work of:
Carl Jung
one who favors projective measures:
psychodynamic clinician
relies on unconscious mind
aptitude vs. achievement
measures potential (predictive validity)
measures what has been learned
school selection tests.
aptitude or achievement
aptitude
aptitude - achievement
standard error of measurement
how accurate or inaccurate a test score is
low standard error = high reliability
threats to internal validity
maturation of subjects
mortality
instruments used
statistical regression
causal comparative design
true experiment EXCEPT
groups were not randomly assigned...
can use parametric statistical tests
R.A. Fisher
hypothesis testing
null hypothesis
the IV does not effect the DV
experimental hypothesis
suggests a difference will be evident between control and experimental group
parameter vs. statistic
summarized a characteristic of a population
value drawn from a sample
p
probability
level of significance
<= .5. differences would occur via chance only 5 times in 100.
(differences exist, but the researcher would get the same results 95 of 100 times.
Type I error
alpha
reject the null hypothesis when it is true
probability of making Type I error = level of significance
the lower the LoS, the lower the probability of making a Type I error
Type II error
beta
accept the null hypothesis when it is false
the lower the LoS, the greater the probability of making a Type II error
1-"alpha level"
the power of the statistical test
*the test's ability to correctly reject a false null hypothesis
parametric vs. nonparametric
more power, used only with interval and ratio data
the greater the sample size...
the less probability of making type I and type II errors.
t-test
used to ascertain if 2 sample means are significantly different
*computation must be greater that table value to reject null hypothesis; if computation is less than table value, accept the null hypothesis
analysis of variance (ANOVA)
used if there are >2 groups
F statistic. if obtained F is > critical value, reject the null hypothesis
ANCOVA
tests 2+ groups while controlling for extraineous variables (co-variates) that may correlate with DV.
controls for sample differrences.
helps remove confounding variables statistically
eliminates differences cause by CV
Kruskal-Wallis
used instead of one-way ANOVA with the data are non-parametric
Wilcoxon signed rank test
used in place of the t-test when the data are non-parametric and you which to test whether 2 correlated means differ significantly
Mann Whitney U test
used in place of t-test when data is non-parametric to determine whether two uncorrrelated means differ significantly
Spearman correlation
Kendall's tau
used in place of Pearson r
factor analysis
statistical prodedures - attempt to summarize a number of variables using important factors
2+ IV
IV = level
chi square
non-parametric measure
tests whether distribution differs significantly from the expected
MANOVA
multivariate analysis of variance
used when study has >1 DV
two way ANOVA
used to test 2 IV
r
correlation coefficient
does not equal causal relationship
indicates degree of relationship between 2 variables
AB design
single subject research
"continuous measurement"
A=baseline
B=intervention
A=new baseline
*withdrawal design: behavior returns to A with withdrawal of B
mean
arthmetic average
(most useful)
median
the score in the exact middle.
(most useful with extreme scores)
mode
most frequently occurring score. point of maximum concentration
(least important).
skewed distribution
distribution of scores is not distributed normally.
mean, median, mode are not equal
solomon four group design
2 control groups
1 experimental group and 1 control group are pre-tested; other control group and experimental group are post-tested
x coordinate
IV
abscissa
y coordinate
DV
ordinate
scattergram
pictoral diagram or graph of 2 variables being correlated. (around regression line reveals where most scores on both variables rest)
John Henry Effect
threat to internal validity
occurs when subjects strive to prove that experimental treatment that could threaten their livelihood isn't effective
z score
same as standard deviation
z score or SD of +1 = 34% of individuals
t score
uses mean of 50, SD of 10
z score of -1 = t score of 40
stanine score
divides distribution into 9 parts.
nominal
qualitative classification
groups
(non-parametric)
ordinal
rank order
distance between is unequal
(non-parametric)
interval
number scale
no absolute zero
(parametric)
ratio
number scale
absolute zero
can +/*-
(parametric)
Hawthorne Effect
reactive effect
if subjects know they are part of an experiment or given more attention, performance improves
Rosenthal Effect
Pygmalion Effect
experimenter effect
asserts that experimenter's beliefs about the individual may cause the individual to be treated differently
t-test
one-tail vs. two-tail
directional (statistically higher mean)
non-directional (statistically different)
random sampling
each subject has theh same probability of being selected.
selection of one does not influence selection of another
*could use systematic sampling
stratification sampling
variable should mimic the population at large
horizontal sampling
occurs when researcher selects subjects from a single socioeconomic group
variance
sum of squares / N
standard deviation measures
variability
Super vs. Ginzberg
Ginzberg did not indicate developmental tasks for every stage of development
schedule of reinforcement
...greatest rate of subject response
variable ratio
variable interval
1950
1960
1970
1980
<1930 - "guidance"
1950 - counseling. developmental psychology (piaget, erikson, havinghurst)
1960 - competing psychotherapies. group "counseling in a changing world" emph. on developmental concerns rather than cause and cure.
1970 - behavior modification
1980 - professionalism, licensing