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377 Cards in this Set

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Describe Section D of The ACA Code of Ethics.
Section D: Relationships with other Professionals, stresses that counselors must respect different approaches to treatment and develop good working relationships and communications with colleagues so that services to the clients are enhanced. This section also addresses working with an interdisciplinary team, informing employers if inappropriate practices are observed, the selection and treatment of employees, and the provision and use of consultation services.
Describe Section G of The ACA Code of Ethics
Section G: Research & Publication, encourages researching counselors to contribute to the profession's knowledge base. This section describes the parameters for research using human participants and requires that counselors observe stringent safeguards to protect the rights and welfare of the participants. Among the rights of the participants are informed consent, limits on the use of deception, confidentiality of the collected information, and clarification of the nature of the study. The section also covers disposal of research documents and the relationships between the researcher and the participants. Publication guidelines are also included.
Describe Section E of the ACA Code of Ethics
Section E: Evaluation, Assessment and Interpretation, addresses the reasons for assessment and states that the assessment method must be appropriate for the client and within the competence of the counselor. The client must give informed consent for the assessment. This section also discusses the release of assessment data. Assessment techniques used to diagnose mental disorders must be carefully selected and used appropriately, and the client's cultural and socioeconomic background must be considered in the diagnosis. Forensic evaluation is also covered in this section.
Describe Section F of the ACA Code of Ethics
Section F: Supervision, Training and Teaching, deals with the role and responsibilities of the counseling supervisor who has the obligation to secure training in supervision. The section also addresses the issue of competence; multiculturalism and diversity; and relationships between supervisors and supervisees, including sexual relationships and sexual harassment. Also delineated in this section are the responsibilities of counselor educators, who develop, implement, and supervise programs of education that include clinical experience for future counselors. Student welfare and responsibilities, student evaluation and remediation, and the relationship between educators and students are covered in this section.
Describe Section H of the ACA Code of Ethics
Section H: Resolving Ethical Issues, addresses the necessity of commitment to a high ethical standard, as exemplified by the ACA Code of Ethics. Conflicts between the ethical standards and the law should be resolved, if at all possible, without violation of the standards, but if such resolution is not possible, the counselor must abide by the law. This section also deals with the reporting of ethical violations, organizational conflicts, and cooperation with ethics committees.
Define the psychoanalytic family term: object
Object: the person, thing or concept to which a person relates.
Define the psychoanalytic family term: splitting
Splitting: the separation of contradictory or conflicting thoughts so that they can be handled separately since the person cannot consider them together.
Define the psychoanalytic family term: projective system.
because of childhood events or relationships, a person has unrealistic expectations of someone with whom s/he has an adult relationship. The term was defined by Robin Skynner.
Define the career counseling term TWA.
TWA: The Theory of Work Adjustment as developed by Renee V. Dawis and Lloyd Lofquist - the idea that the job must fill the needs of the person and the person must fit the job; correspondence or congruence between person and work.
Define the career counseling term PEC.
Person Environment Correspondence - the relationship between job satisfaction and an increase in productivity.
Define the career counseling term SCCT.
social - cognitive - career theory - posits that self-efficacy, or a person's belief in what s/he is capable of doing, influences career choice.
Define Section B of The ACA Code of Ethics.
Section B: Confidentiality, Privileged Communication and Privacy, covers how information about clients must be handled and deals with the issue of trust. This section delineates the circumstances under which confidential information may be disclosed. Confidentiality in group work is discussed as is the storage and disposal of records. Prior consent from the client is required for the recording of a counseling session and for the transfer of information to third parties unless specific exceptions permit the transfer. This section also states that counselors must disguise the identity of a client when information is used in training, research, or publication. Information must be handled in a culturally sensitive manner.
Define the family therapy term: mimesis.
Mimesis: as defined by Minuchin, the copying of a family's style by a counselor.
Define the family therapy term: perverse triangle.
Perverse Triangle: as used by Hayley, the situation in which two members of a family team up against another member in an effort to reduce his/her authority.
Define the family therapy term: skeleton key.
Skeleton Key: as used by Steve deShazer, a standard intervention that can be used in dealing with several problems.
Define the following family therapy term: integrative psychotherapy.
Integrative Psychotherapy: the integration of multiple therapy approaches, used by 30-50% of therapists.
Define the following family therapy term: XO.
XO: An abbreviation used by counselors. X means treatment and O indications observation. Can also indicate a measurement score or dependent variable.
Describe Section A of The ACA Code of Ethics.
Section A: The Counseling Relationship describes the counselor's obligation to respect the dignity of the client and promote his or her welfare. This section requires that the counselor receive informed consent for the counseling, that he or she communicates important information such as the client's rights and responsibilities both verbally and in writing. Also in this section is a review of the relationship of the counselor and with the client as an individual, as part of a group and at the institutional and societal levels. Sexual contact with clients is expressly forbidden. The quality of care for terminally ill clients, the collection of fees and receiving gifts are also covered in this section, as is the ethical use of technology.
Define Section C of the ACA Code of Ethics.
Section C: Professional Responsibility, states the requirements that counselors within their competence levels, continue their education, avoid working with clients who might be harmed by the counselor's problems, and truthfully represent their credentials and services in advertising and at other times. The section also prohibits the recruitment of clients through a counselor's other employment or social contacts, sexual harassment, exploitative relationships with subordinates, and unjustified compensation. Relationships with other professionals serving the clients and employment conditions that might negatively impact the counselor's work are also covered. Techniques and procedures must be based in accepted theories or the client must be told they are unproven.
Discuss ethical issues that must be addressed in group counseling.
The ethical issues such as informed consent that pertain to individual counseling are valid for group counseling. One issue that expands for a group is confidentiality. Confidentiality must be maintained for all members of the group so that no identities or other information is revealed to anyone outside of the group, although there should be a clear understanding of when confidentiality must be waived. Members should not engage in social relationships with each other or discuss the sessions outside of the meetings. The counselor should maintain an environment that discourages cliques and subgroups, but encourages respect for all group members regardless of such factors as race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic level.
Define the following: defamation.
Defamation: an attack upon a person's reputation by slander (untrue verbal statement) or libel (untrue written statement)
Define the following: Contempt of court
Contempt of Court: Disrespect or disobedience to the authority of a court. Counselors who refuse to testify in a court proceeding may be charged with contempt.
Define the following: CRC
CRC: Certified Rehabilitation Counselor - a person who has earned at least a master's degree in rehabilitation counseling and passed the certification exam
Define the following: MAC
MAC: Master Addictions Counselor - a specialty certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors.
Define the following: Abandonment
Abandonment - a counselor closes a practice or is unavailable for some time without notifying the clients.
Define: Morphstasis
An adaptability skill a family may use in balancing stability.
Define: Morphogenesis
An adaptability skill a family may use in handling change.
Define: Aspirational ethics
Ideal Practices.
Define: Quid Pro Quo
Something for something - an exchange in which each person does something for the other. An unethical practice for a counselor would be for the counselor to exchange counseling for some service the client could provide.
Define: Paradox
Prescribing the problem but with an exaggeration or some sort of twist - should not be used with addictive behaviors that harm the client or others, or with suicidal or homicidal clients.
Define: Differentiation
The ability of each member of a family to maintain his or her own sense of self.
List the legal aspects of counseling.
Laws governing counseling practices are usually made at the state level and often overlap ethical principles. Among the issues addressed by law are the requirement that suspected child abuse be reported, that insurance claims not be fraudulent, and that counselors not engage in sexual contact with clients. In most cases parents or guardians of minor children have access to the child's records, although there are some circumstances under which a child can receive counseling with parental consent. In most states licensure grants privileged communication between counselor and client.
Discuss ethical issues that must be addressed in family counseling.
In family counseling both the counselor and the family involved must be very clear as to whether the family as a whole or an individual family member is actually the client. The identity of the client will determine how the counselor deals with diverse issues (family vs. family member) and where the counselor focuses attention. Confidentiality is another issue that will arise, since there is a distinction between information shared with the counselor in an individual session and in discussion when the entire family is present. If the counselor learns of child abuse or incest, that information must be reported to the authorities. Confidentiality may be waived if the counselor is required to testify in court in cases of child abuse or incest, that information must be reported to the authorities. Confidentiality may be waived if the counselor is required to testify in court in cases of abuse, involuntary commitment, or child custody. The counselor must be aware of his/her own biases and prejudices and able to set them aside when dealing with an alternative family or with a family from a different cultural background.
Explain the following: ICD
ICD: The Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death. A publication of the World Health Organization that can be useed as an alternative to the DSM-IV in coding client diagnoses for insurance purposes.
Explain the following: PL94-142
The Education Act for All Handicapped Children, which was passed in 1975, is a federal law that provides a free education for all children between the ages of 5 and 21, that placement for handicapped persons will be in the least restrictive environment and that an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) will be provided for every child.
Explain the following: 1958 National Defense Education Act.
(NDEA) - a federal law passed in reaction to the launch of Sputnik, that provided student loans in areas of science and technology and also in such fields as counseling, librarianship and foreign language.
List the steps in establishing a counseling program.
1) Develop an understanding of the context in which the program will operate.
2) Assess the need for the program and develop a mission statement.
3) Set goals and objectives and establish criteria for measuring success.
4) Set up feedback procedures.
5) Check for problems by conducting a small-scale pilot program.
6) Create a development plan that includes needed personnel, facilities, funding, and other resources.
7) Create an implementation plan with a schedule for hiring and training personnel and other start-up activities.
8) Start operations and fine-tune procedures and services.
9) Evaluate the program and report to the responsible authorities.
10) Review the program and make modifications as needed.
Describe the principles of ethical decision-making and the purpose of the ACA Code of Ethics.
While each counselor has his or her own ethical standards, some general principles underlie many of the ethical decisions counselor make. These principles include: beneficence, not causing harm, respect for freedom of choice and self-determination, fairness, and honoring commitments. The ACA Code of Ethics and Standard of Practice is a document produced by the ACA that establishes principles of ethical behavior to which all ACA members must adhere.
List ethical standards of practice.
1) The counselor must adhere to a code of professional ethics. 2) The profession defines ethical practice. 3) Informed consent must be obtained before treatment is started. 4) Clients must be informed if it is necessary to break confidentiality. 5) Parental consent must be obtained when treating a minor. 6) Clients must be informed if a session is to be recorded, a supervisor will observe, or if the counselor is still in training. 7) The counselor must never engage in a sexual relationship with a client. Any such contact must be delayed for at least five years after the end of the counselor/client relationship. 8) The counselor may inform the client's partner if the client has AIDS or is HIV positive. 9) Counselors should not treat friends or family. 10) Counselors should continue their education, including the development of an awareness of other cultures. 11) Confidentiality must be maintained except in the specific circumstances of danger to the client or others, consultations with other professionals, release of information to such agencies as the client's insurance company. 12) The counselor's primary responsibility is the client.
Explain the following: third party payment.
Third party payment: Payment of the counselor's charges through an insurance company or through the employer if the counselor is employed by an agency or under the supervision of a psychologist.
Explain the following: Managed health care.
Managed Health Care: A system that controls the delivery of health care to members of the system and the payment for that care. Members of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) must choose care providers from lists supplied by the organizations in order for insurance to pay for the services.
Explain the following: HIPPA.
HIPPA: (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) - a national law that sets the privacy standards for client information and the transfer of information.
Explain the following: EPA
EPA (Employee Assistance Programs) - programs provided by companies to assist employees in dealing with problems, either through an in-house counselor or referrals to outside agencies.
Describe the skills needed in order to manage a counseling program.
Counseling program managers need the same management skills as managers in any other field. Among the necessary abilities are planning, organizing, establishing goals, setting standards, creating management skills, including hiring, training, supervision, scheduling, and evaluation, are vital. It is quite likely that marketing, dissemination of information about the program, report writing, and fund raising may also be included in the manager's responsibilities.
List professional standards of practice.
In some states standards of practice are part of the laws that govern counselor licensure. At least twenty states require counselors to adhere to the ACA Code of Ethics. Among the major ethical and legal issues are:
1) Counselors should be familiar with the standards of the state in which they practice and with the ACA Code of Ethics.
2) Counselors should use diagnostics systems to assess client's needs and fit the techniques and procedures used to each client.
3) Methods and techniques should be justified by the theoretical basis of each program.
4) The counselors should use methods, procedures, and techniques that are consistent with their training and experience.
5) Each counselor should practice within his or her level of competence.
6) Training and credentials must not be misrepresented.
7) The relationship with a client must be terminated when the counselor's services are no longer helpful.
Explain licensure in the counseling profession.
Licenses are issued by the states and each state has its own laws and requirements for licensure. Most states require a master's degree in counseling with courses in eight content areas, student field experience, post-degree supervised experience, and a passing score on a state exam. Both the National Counselor Exam and the National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Exam are used. Some states have just a "title control" law, which allows non-licensed counselors but forbids their usage of the "Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC)" title. Other states have "title and practice control" laws. Some states limit the use of psychological tests and others are reducing the scope of counseling practice. Some psychologists object to the licensure of counselors.
Explain the Tarasoff the Case and the duty to protect.
The 1976 the Tarasoff family sued the University of California Board of Regents after Prosenjit Proddar, a client of a university psychologist, murdered Tatiana Tarasoff. The psychologist, in maintaining confidentiality, had failed to warn Ms Tarasoff that Poddar was a danger to her. The outcome was that counselors are now required to warn their clients intended victims even when the warning violates both confidentiality and privileged information.
The duty to protect means that a counselor that a counselor has a responsibility to protect clients from suicide. The counselor should have procedures and guidelines in place for handling such situations, be aware of referral possibilities, and be thoroughly familiar with signs that the client may be planning suicide.
Explain professional liability and malpractice.
Professional liability is the counselor's responsibility to provide clients with services that meet the standards of the profession. Malpractice is the legal term for a situation in which the counselor fails to deliver services, the services are substandard, or harm results to the client b/c of the negligence or ineptitude of the counselor. Clients who feel they have not received proper services or have been harmed by the counselor's treatment may bring a malpractice suit against the counselor and/or the agency. Successful malpractice suits require that there was a client/counselor relationship, the counselor was negligent or the services were substandard, the client was physically or psychologically harmed, and the injury resulted from a breach of duty. Counselor can protect themselves by carrying liability insurance, which is available through the ACA and other agencies.
Discuss certification in the counseling profession.
National Certified Counselor (NCC) is a designation held by nearly 40,000 American counselors. The designation means that each has met the qualifications set by the National Board of Certified Counselors (CBCC). Those qualifications include an educational requirement of an advanced degree in counseling with coursework in eight content areas and that the candidate serves an internship, a supervised experience requirement of 3,000 hours in the counselor's specialty, and a passing score on the National Counselor Examination for Licensure and Certification. The CBCC was established in 1982 and has responsibility for certifying counseling professionals. After achieving the NCC a counselor may qualify for a specialty credential in school counseling, mental health counseling, or working with addictions. A continuing education requirement of 100 clock hours per five years of certification must be met in order for the counselor to maintain certification. Graduate students in a CACREP program can be certified at graduation. Rehabilitation counselors are certified by a separate board. School and drug and alcohol counselors are also certified by the states in which they practice.
Explain confidentiality and privileged communication.
These two issues are related but not identical. Confidentiality is an ethical issue that requires a counselor not to discuss a client, or even acknowledge that a particular person is a client, with anyone outside of the agency. Privileged information is a legal issue established by law that prohibits communications between counselors and clients from being revealed in court. There are some situations that require or permit the waiver of privileged information and confidentiality. These situations include child abuse allegations, involuntary hospitalization, the client is a threat to himself or others, or a court order requires the release of information.
Define the following: statement of disclosure.
Statement of Disclosure: A legal document given to the client before the start of counseling that includes the counselor's credentials office hours, billing information, privacy policy, and emergency and grievance procedures, as well as information about the counseling procedures and techniques the client can expect.
Define the following: release of information.
Release of information: A document through which the client gives the counselor permission to share confidential information with another agency or professional - should specify what information may be given to whom at what time.
Define the following: Buckley amendment & Title IX
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972: a federal law that bans sexual discrimination in academic institutions from kindergarten to university. Although the law has been applied most often to sports, it applies to academic and all other activities at any educational institutional receiving federal funding.
Describe ERIC.
ERIC is the acronym for the Educational Resources Information Center, an electronic library of educational research and information. Sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences, a part of the U.S. Department of Education, ERIC provides access to bibliographic records of journals and other literature from 1966 to the present. The database also has a growing number of full-text materials. Currently ERIC indexes more than 650 journals and offers free, full-text access to over 100,000 other materials.
Give a high level overview of the history of counseling through the 1950's.
In the years after the Civil War, the first American counselors were deans and advisors who were responsible for female college students. 1879 - First psychological laboratory est. by Wilhelm Wundt. 1890 - Freud began psychoanalysis treatments. 1898 - Jesse Davis started work as a counselor in a high school in Detroit. 1908 - Frank Parson was director of the Vocation Bureau in Boston & Cliffort Beers published "A Mind That Found Itself", a book about conditions in mental health institutions. 1909- Parson's "Choosing A Vocation" est. the trait-factor approach in guidance. 1913- The first professional counseling association, the National Vocational Guidance Association, was est. 1917- the Smith-Hughes Act was passed, establishing the first federal funding for guidance and vocational education. 1931 - The "Workbook in Vocations" by Proctor, Benefield and Wrenn changed popular usuage from "guidance" to "counseling". 1939 - Williamson published "How to Counsel Students" modifying Parson's trait-factor approach. 1941- Rogers published "Counseling and Psychotherapy. After 1945 - counseling services were expanded by the Veterans Administration.
Discuss accreditation in the counseling profession.
Accreditation is the recognition that an educational program meets established criteria and standards. The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) is the accrediting agency for counseling programs that offer the master's and doctoral degrees. More than 300 programs in the U.S. offer a master's degree and at least fifty offer a doctorate. Some degrees are specific to a particular discipline such as school, marital, career, or gerontalogical counseling. Other agencies that accredit programs include the Council on Rehabilitation Education, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapists, and the American Psychological Association.
Define the following in terms of counseling research: parsimony.
Parsimony: the research interprets the results of a study in the simplest and least complex manner - sometimes called Occam's Razor.
Define the following in terms of counseling research: parameter.
Parameter: A value used to represent a characteristic of the population.
Define the following in terms of counseling research: statistic.
Statistic: A value calculated from a data sample.
Define the following in terms of counseling research: probability.
Probability: The quantitative description of the likelihood of a particular event occurring.
Define the following in terms of counseling research: correlation.
Correlation: The relationship between variables.

Positive Correlation: Both variable have the same directional change.

Negative Correlation: The variables change in opposite directions.

Zero Correlation: The variables have no relationship.
Review current and continuing trends in counseling.
Counseling deals with a wide variety of human conditions, activities, & characteristics, including personal growth, mental health, career development, wellness, social and interpersonal relationships, and pathological psychology. Changes in society and growing social awareness are increasing the influence of multiculturalism, spirituality, justice, oppression, and violence. Technology has brought about several changes and will continue to be a major influence in the field, with the Internet and computer-assisted counseling (CAC) as important trends. As the involvement of electronic resources increases, there will be a need for research into the positive and negative effects of the trend. Currently there is little or no research on the subject, although some counselors feel that CAC is having a depersonalizing effect on counseling. Counselors are currently licensed by the states and not all states have reciprocity with all others. The question of credentialing will become even more important as Internet counseling grows, since an Internet cliental could spread far beyond a geographical location. Efforts by the American Association of State Counseling Boards may lead to a portability for licensed counselors. The establishment of the National Credentials Registry in 2005 was a step in that direction.
Give a high level overview of the history of counseling from 1960 to the present.
1960s- Behavioral, gestalt, rational emotive, and reality approaches to counseling were developed.
1962- Wrenn's "The Counselor in A Changing World" was published. California became the first state to pass a law licensing marriage, family and child counselors.
1976- Virginia passed the first law to license general practice counselors.
1981-The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs was established.
1983- The APGA became the American Association for Counseling and Development.
1992-The AACD became the American Counseling Association
1990s- Specialty counseling areas developed and laws regarding the profession were passed at the federal level.
Describe the following: Solomon four-group design.
Solomon four-group design: is a study of whether or not a pretest affects the subjects of a study by sensitizing or influencing them before the start of the research. Such effects must be considered in the comparison of the results with the control group.
Describe the following: Multiple regression.
Multiple regression: is a procedure in which the researcher uses a correlation coefficient to learn about the relationship btw. multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. The procedure can be used to determine the "best predictor" of a particular event or outcome. An example would be which personality trait best predicts social adjustment.
Describe the following: Factor analysis.
Factor Analysis: examines the relationships among a group of variables for the purpose of determining the simplest explanation for those relationships, which is usually the smallest number of factors involved.
Describe the following: biserial correlation.
Biserial Correlation: coefficient is a measure of the relationship between one variable with multiple values and another that is dichotomous.
Discuss accountability in the field of counseling.
Accountability is primarily concerned with the effectiveness of the treatment and with justification of the cost. Both formative evaluation, which analyzes the effectiveness of a treatment, process, or technique, and summative evaluation, which measures how well a program meets its goals, are used to determine if a program is worthwhile. Justification of the cost of a program is related to its effectiveness and must answer the question "Are the results worth the cost?" Whether it is an insurance company, an individual, a government agency, or a business providing a service to its employees, whoever is paying for the program wants an explanation for the cost as well as information about the effectiveness of the program. Specific measurable objectives must be established and the level of achievement measured and documented.
Explain writing issues faced in doing research.
In addition to the ethical issues of accurate reporting and giving credit where it is deserved, the researcher must write his/her report in an acceptable style. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the standard style manual for most counseling and psychological publications as well as for many college and university dissertations. Reports should be free of sexist, racist, and any other inappropriate language. Reports may be written for a sponsoring agency, for publication, or both. If the report is submitted for publication, it should only be submitted to on journal at a time.
Describe post hoc and nonparametric tests.
Post hoc tests, which are multiple comparison tests, can be done after the data sets in a study are determined to have similar F values. Popular tests, listed in order from most conservative to most liberal include: Scheffe's, Tukey's Honesty Significant Difference (HSD), Newman-Keuls, Duncan's New Multiple Range Test, and Fisher's LSD. Nonparametric tests are validation tests used when a study yields values that are not distributed normally or the sample variance is close to that of the population. When two samples are independent of each other and have significantly differing means, the Mann-Whitney U Test is appropriate. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test is useful in situation where each individual has two or more scores or two data sets have the same values. A nonparametric one-way analysis of variance is the Kruskal-Wallis Test used when there are multiple values for a single variable or factor.
Define the following: cross-sectional
Cross-sectional: a study of the characteristics of multiple groups. The study of one group's characteristics over a period of time is a longitudinal study.
Define the following: degrees of freedom
Degrees of Freedom: how many observations the researcher may make after he or she has made the minimum number needed for the study.
Define the following: double-blind technique
Double-blind technique: neither the subjects nor the researchers know the least one variable. For example, in a drug test neither would know which subjects had received the actual drug or which had received the placebo.
Define the following: heteroscedasticity.
Heteroscedasticity: unequal variance of the data.
Define the following: homoscedasticity.
Homoscedasticity: statistical variances are assumed to be equal
Define the following: semantic differential.
semantic differential: a method for measuring a subject's reactions to words or concepts through the use of a bipolar scale using contrasting adjectives.
Explain the ethical issues faced in doing research.
Primary ethical issues in research involve informed consent, confidentiality, credit, and truthfulness in reporting. Research subjects should always be aware that they are participating in a research project and should have given their consent to participate only after being fully informed about the research and any risks involved. The informed consent is especially import in any research where there may be harm to the subjects, such as in drug testing where the control group receives a placebo or the new drug may produce harmful side effects. All personal information should be held in strict confidence and raw data should be accessible only to the research team. In reporting the results of the research it is imperative that the report be accurate even when the results disprove the researcher's theory and that proper credit be given to all involved.
Explain independent and dependent variables and Type I and Type II errors.
The independent variable is the factor in an experiment or study that is changed by the researcher. The dependent variable is what is being measured by the study and is changed in response to the changes in the independent variable. In a type I error (alpha error) the null hypothesis is rejected as false or unproven when it is actually true. A researcher makes a type II error (beta error) when he or she does not reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false. Type II errors are often the result of a sample size that is too small.
Explain t-test.
The t-test compares the mean of two independent data sets to determine if there is a significant statistical difference between them. The test makes reference to an established Table of t-values. It can establish the existence or non-existence of relationships between data sets before a full standard deviation value is determined. This test can be especially useful for small sample groups.
Describe the analysis of covariance and the three basic kinds of analysis of variance.
1)Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA): is used in studies where the dependent variable are controlled. Possible techniques of controlling the variables are to use non-random samples or to statistically adjust variables that affect the dependent variable.
2) One-way analysis of variance: is a test for differences when the study involves three or more independent groups or levels.
3) Factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA): is used in the study of two or more variables. The 2x2 design, in which there are two independent variables each with two distinct values, is the most common, although multi-level designs can be used.
4) Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): is used in studies involving several dependent variables and at least two independent variables.
Define the term: meta-analysis.
Meta-analysis: answering a research question through the comparison of results from multiple studies.
Define the term: sample size.
Sample size: the number of samples included in a study.
Define the term: table of random numbers.
Table of random numbers: a list of random numbers (usually computer-generated) that can be assigned to potential study samples and used to randomly select those who will participate in the study.
Define the term: Likert scale.
Likert Scale: A rating scale on which study participants agree or disagree with statements that measure attitudes or opinions.
Define the term: Scatterplot.
Scatterplot: a graphic using horizontal and vertical lines to illustrate the relationship between two variables.
Explain the various forms of hypothesis and how the significance level affects study results.
A hypothesis is a statement or prediction of what will be shown by a study. It may be a hunch, an educated guess, or derived from a theory. A null hypothesis assumes no difference or no association between variables. A directional hypothesis predicts how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable. A non-directional hypothesis predicts an effect, but does not state how the dependent variable will be affected.

The significance level indicates the probability of making a type I error in a hypothesis test. It is usually set as low as possible with a level of .05 or 5% being a commonly used level.
Explain chi-square.
Chi-Square: is used to determine if there are significant differences in the distribution of two data sets. This test is used to determine whether the data fits a known type of distribution or whether different attributes or factors in a single data set are related or independent of each other. Another use for the test is to determine if two data sets or populations are homogeneous when compared to each other.
Explain bivariate tablular analysis.
Bivariate tablular analysis: (or crossbreak) is a method of graphically illustrating the relationship or non-relationship of two variables by the use of an X/Y graph. Traditionally the independent variable is shown by the vertical axis and the dependent variable by the horizontal axis.
Describe qualitative research.
Qualitative research is an in-depth investigation or the subject, which often is a group of people, but may be an individual. The group may be a family, a community, or even an ethnic or cultural minority. The motivation for the research usually involves learning the reasons why the subject practices certain behaviors. Research methods include observation, case studies, and participant observation. One type of qualitative research is ethnographic research, which is the foundation of anthropology. Interactive qualitative research includes case studies and ethnography. Non-interactive qualitative research includes a study and analysis of the literature about a particular subject.
Explain external validity and the factors that can threaten it.
External validity is the accuracy with which the results of a study can be generalized to a larger population. Loss of external validity can come from such factors as too small a sample or from differing circumstances. For example, a study using only high school students cannot be generalized to all students. Nor can a study of factory workers be generalized to all employed people. Changing circumstances during the study can also affect external validity. Generalization can also be affected by the Hawthorne effect, the Rosenthal effect, and demand characteristics.The Hawthorne effect is caused by the study subjects knowing they are involved in a study or by the attention paid to the subjects. The Rosenthal effect, also called experimenter bias and the Pygmalion effect, happens when the study subjects change their behavior because of the attitudes, expectations, or behavior or the researcher. Demand characteristics are caused by information received by the subjects, including rumors they heard before the start of the study.
Sampling is selecting a part of a population in order to make a valid generalization about the total population. Describe the types of samples.
1) Random: sampling is choosing the subjects for a study entirely by chance. Such sampling reduces the likelihood of bias.
2) Stratified: sampling divides the population into subgroups according to some criteria - such as age, ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic level, and then selects subjects from each subgroup. This increases the validity of generalizing the findings to the entire population.
3) Proportional stratified: sampling is the selection of the number of subjects from each subgroup that corresponds to the % of the population that fits into that subgroup.
4) Cluster: sampling divides the population into subdivisions or clusters, and then selects a random sample from the clusters.
5) Purposeful: sampling is the selection of subjects for in-depth study. Generalizations are not derived from these studies. Studies based on convenience or volunteer samples do not produce normal score distributions but may provide useful information.
Describe experimental and quasi-experimental quantitative research and give an example.
The cause and effect relationship btw. variables can be discovered by experimental quantitative research. In such research there will be a control factor, a dependent variable, and an independent variable while random and confounding variables will be eliminated. The hypothesis is tested by the measurement of the changes in the independent variable as compared with the control. An example would be a foreign-language class in which half the students (the control) receive only the classroom lessons, and the other half watch a film with subtitles in the language they are learning. Quasi-experimental research is much like experimental but may not use a control. The results from quasi-experimental research may not be unequivocal.
Explain internal validity and the confounding variables that can occur.
Internal validity is the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the variable under study b/c extraneous or confounding variables have been controlled. Confounding variables can include the selection of subjects, the testing instruments, the maturation and experiences of the subjects during the study, and the researchers themselves. Subject selection becomes a confounding variable unless the control and experimental groups are identical in age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background. Identical testing & recording instruments must be used with both groups and must remain reliable and consistent. If the study endures for more than a few weeks, then the maturation and/or experiences of the subjects become confounding variables. If group members drop out of the study or die during it, their loss will affect the outcome. The researcher becomes a confounding variable if he allows his biases to influence his reporting of the study and the results, or if such factors as health and fatigue affect it.
Describe this level of measurement: nominal.
Nominal: measurements are categorical variables such as gender, race, marital status, and religion. In a study nominal measurements are used to describe the demographics of the subjects.
Describe this level of measurement: Ordinal.
Ordinal: measurements are used to describe variables that can be arranged in some type of order or ranking. Opinion and attitude scales are examples.
Describe this level of measurement: Interval.
Interval: level of measurement is used to describe variables with similar or equal distances btw. the ranks. Generations and crime rates are examples.
Describe this level of measurement: Ratio.
Ratio: level of measurement applies to variables that have equal intervals and a zero reference point. This type of measurement is little used in the social sciences since attitudes are usually not measured at the zero level.
Describe the contribution of Frances Galton, J.P. Gilfrod, Alfred Binet, and M. Terman.
Sr. Francis Galton is recognized as the leading pioneer in the study of individual differences He concluded that intelligence was primarily genetic and had a normal distribution, similar to height and weight. J.P. Gilford used factor analysis and isolated 120 factors that added up to intelligence. He also defined convergent and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking is when different thoughts and ideas are combined into a single concept. Divergent thinking is the ability to create a novel idea.

Alfred Benet, along with Theodore Simon, is credited with creating the first intelligence test. The year was 1905 and the test consisted of 30 items of increasing difficulty administered to discriminate normal from retarded Parisian children. It was adapted for America by M. Terman of Stanford University and became the Stanford-Binet IQ test. The original Stanford-Binet produced the intelligence quotient or ratio IQ (mental age divided by chronological age times 100: MA/CA x 100). Today the IQ formula is SAS, standard age score, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16.
Identify the following individual: John Erti.
John Erti: advanced the theory that the rate at which a person processes information is an indication of his or her level of intelligence - the faster the processing, the more intelligent the person. He also invented an intelligence-testing machine that uses an electrode helmet in conjunction with a computer and an EEG.
Identify the following individual: Raymond Cattell.
Raymond Cattell: developed the theories of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence is inborn, deals with abstract reasoning, is unrelated to experience and decreases with age. Crystallized intelligence develops from acquired knowledge and skills. He is also the creator of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
Identify the following individual: Arthur Jensen.
Arthur Jensen: applied the theory that intelligence is genetic to adopted children, expecting them to have IQ scores closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. he believed that 80% of intelligence is inherited and only 20% is environmental.
Identify the following individual: Robert Williams.
Robert Williams: An African-American psychologist, created the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH) as proof that African-Americans can excel on intelligence tests when the cultural bias is toward their own experience rather than toward White culture.
Define research and the two types of research.
Research is the collecting and analyzing of information about a particular subject. It may involve searching through written material, observation of a phenomenon or of people, or experiments. Research can be divided into deductive and inductive types. Deductive research sets out to prove or disprove a theory by collecting data and testing hypotheses. Inductive research works from known information to develop a theory by establishing relationships or patterns in the data.
Explain why WAIS-III is better for adults.
David Wechsler wanted to created a test that did not rely solely on verbal skills. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, WAIS-III, WAIS-III, is one of the IQ tests developed by David Wechsler and administered on an individual basis. The WAIS-III provides a verbal IQ, performance IQ, and a full-scale IQ. There are a total of 7 verbal plus 7 performance scales. Wechsler also developed the WPPSI-R, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, for children ages 3 years to 7 years/3 months. For children 6 years to 16 years/11 months, he developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised, WISC-III.
Describe Public Law 93-380.
Public Law 93-380, commonly known as the Buckley Amendment provides for the confidentiality of school and college related information. An educational institution may not release private information event to parents without the student's consent unless the student is under 18 years old or listed as a dependent on the parents' federal tax return. Students and parents of dependent students have the right to inspect the student's record and correct errors.
Describe non-experimental quantitative research giving examples of each type.
Quantitative research is systematic and usually uses scientific methods. Non-experimental types are survey, descriptive, comparative, correlational, and Ex Post Facto. Surveys can be questionnaires or interviews and can be used to ascertain attitudes, beliefs, and opinions. Surveys sent out through the mail often have a poor respoonse rate, which may invalidate generalizations make from them. Descriptive or statistical research can be used to document such factors as frequencies, averages, etc., showing the who, what, when, where, and how of the data. An example is a ratings chart. Comparative research compares two or more groups without changing any of the experiences of the groups. A comparative survey would ask, "Which are more alike?" In correlational research the degree of relationship between variables is determined by the use of the correlation coefficient. Ex Post Facto, or causal-comparative, research discovers the relationships between pre-existing variables. The t-test and variance statistics may be used.
Explain predictive validity.
Predictive validity, which can also be called empirical validity, is the capability of a testing instrument to predict future behavior, for example the ability of the Graduate Record Exam to predict a person's grade point average.
Explain concurrent validity.
Concurrent validity is the immediate comparison of the test results with the results from other sources that measure the same factors in the same short time span.
Explain construct validity.
Construct validity is the extent to which a testing instrument measures an abstract psychological trait such as anxiety.
List the some of the major types of tests and inventories with examples.
Intelligences exams: are used to measure a person's mental ability. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAAIS-III), and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children are Examples of this.

Achievement Tests: Measure learning and are often given in schools at particular grade levels or as "end of year" tests. They can also be used as diagnostic tools. Some examples are: The California Achievement Test and the General Education Development (GED).

Aptitude Tests: which can also be called ability tests are used to measure a person's ability to master skills or acquire knowledge. Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) and Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS) are examples.

Personality tests: are used to determine a person's personality traits and may be projective, inventories or specialized. Examples are: projective - Rorschach, and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); inventory - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; specialized - Tennessee self-Concept Scale and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery.

Interest Inventories: are used to determine a person's likes and dislikes. Strong Interest Inventory, Career Assessment Inventory, and O*Net Interest Profiler are examples.
Explain ethical issues in testing.
Confidentiality of tests results is of primary importance since some test results can label or stereotype the test takes, and in some instances, may be an invasion of privacy. Confidentiality is especially important if test records are placed on a computer. The counselor must maintain security measures, both physical and on the computer, to ensure that the records are not accessible to unauthorized persons. Another issue concerns the tests themselves since most were developed to test white, middle-class males and may not accurately test females, non-white males, or persons from minority cultures. The counselor should make every effort to see that the tests he or she uses are as unbiased as possible. Some issues of validity, interpretation, and confidentiality concern computer administered tests, which can include self-testing.
List the circumstances when testing is useful and give examples of the purpose for administering tests to clients.
Tests are used for many purposes in many different situations. In educational institutions they measure academic achievement, and in job placement, can help guide people to careers for which they are best suited. They can also be used to predict future performance and success in both education and work. Tests are also used to ensure the qualification of persons who apply for licenses of certification in a field of employment. Counselors use various tests to evaluate clients and to help the clients learn about themselves. Among the reasons a counselor may adminster a test to a client are: to determine if the client's needs are within the scope of the counselor's practice, to help the client understand himself, or herself, to help the counselor better understand the client, to determine which methods and techniques are most appropriate for a particular client, to aid the client in decision making, to identify interests, and to evaluate the counseling.
List the steps in interpreting test scores with a client.
1. The counselor should be trained in test theory, and before administering the test, should study the technical manual for the test.
2. The counselor should understand the scores, profiles and implications of the test.
3. Using non-technical language, the counselor should explain the test to the client, including the reason for the test and what it measures.
4. When reviewing the scores with the client, the counselor should explain percentiles and other technical terms.
5. The results of the test should be presented to the client in an organized manner and in layman's terms. The interrelationship of the multiple tests should be explained if more than one was used.
6. The counselor should help the client to integrate the results of the test with other factors and encourage the client to express reactions with emotions.
7. The counselor should assure the client that test scores are tools to help with decision making and not infallible limits placed on him or her.
8. The interpretation session should not be rushed; time should be available for the client to ask questions and discus the results.
Define the term: regression to the mean.
Regression to the mean: is a statistical concept where earning a very low score or a very high score on a pretest means the individual will probably score close to the mean on the posttest. The error is due to chance, personal and environment factors that will be different on the posttest.
Define the term: Rating Scale.
Rating Scale: is a cart used to indicate the degree to which an attribute or characteristic exists.
Define the term: sociometry
Sociometry: was coined by Joseph Levy Moreno and is a method of tracking the relationship of individuals within a group. A sociogram is a map or diagram showing the structure of the group or relationships of the members.
Define the term: psychometric
Psychometric: refers to any form of mental testing.
Define the term: mean
Mean: the average score from a group of tests.
Define the term: median
Median: the middle score from a group of tests.
Define the term: mode
Mode: the score that occurs most frequently in a set of scores.
Define the term: skew
Skew: the amount a score deviates from the norm
Define the term: range
Range: the lowest score subtracted from the highest
Define the term: standard deviation
Standard Deviation: a measure of statistical dispersion - in testing, how widely spread the scores are from the mean.
Define the following: variance
Variance: the square of the standard deviation.
Define the following: bell curve
Bell curve: a graphic illustration of the normal distribution of a data set
Define the following: correlation coeeficient
Correlation Coefficient: a measurement of the linear relationship between two variables.
Define the following: relability
Reliability: the consistency with which a test yields similar results, measured by the use of a correlation coefficient. Reliable does not equate to validity.
Define the following terms: Intrusive measurement.
Intrusive measurement: questionnaires, interviews, and other situations in which a person is aware s/he is being observed -that awareness can affect the results of the the observation. Measurement can also be called reactive.
Define the following: Obtrusive measurement.
Obtrusive measurement: (nonreactive), subject is unaware of observation or investigation, such as when records are reviewed or subject is observed through a one-way window.
Define the coefficient of determination.
Coefficient of determination: the square of the correlation coefficient which shows the common variation between the two variables - in testing, the amount of common variance between repeated tests.
Define the standard error of measurement
Standard error of measurement: (SEM) - a statistical range that will include a test taker's score - calculated by the multiplication of the test's standard deviation by the square root of 1, then the subtraction of the reliability coefficient.
Define percentile.
Percentile: on a scale of 100 the number that shows the percent of a data distribution equal to or below it.
Define stanine.
Stanine, or Standard Nine - a way of scaling test scores - nine divisions, five of them in the middle with a standard deviation of 2. The lowest scores comprise the first group and the highest scores the last.
Define Z-Scores.
Z-Score: A method for determining a standardized score - subtract the mean from an individual score then divide by the standard deviation.
Define T-Score.
T-Score: a score within a normal distribution with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
Define Standardized Score.
Standardized Score: same as a Z score (subtract the mean from an individual score then divide by the standard deviation)
Describe the following types of reliability: stability, equivalence, and internal consistency.
Test reliability is a measurement of the consistency with which a test yields similar results in repeated uses.
1. Stability: also called test-retest reliability - giving the same test to the same group twice with no more than 2 weeks btw. so that the two sets of results can be correlated without intervening experiences affecting the outcome.
2. Equivalence: the correlation of the results of using different tests covering the same content with the same group of test takers. Time btw. the tests and the formats used can affect the outcome.
3. Internal consistency: measures the consistency of results from items in a test - do the responses from similar and opposing questions yield consistent information.
Explain what validity is and define face and content validity.
The validity of a test is the degree to which it measure what it is designed to measure. The content of the test must accurately measure the skills or information learned. The validity of a test is specific to a situation, including why and to whom it is administered. A testing instrument that is valid for one situation or population may not be valid for another. A valid test must always be reliable.
Face validity: is obvious validity, for example the questions on a math test will deal with math.
Content validity: which can also be called rational or logical validity, is the reflection of the subject matter in the content of the test, for example a math test will contain material covered in the specific math course.
Explain the following: underemployment.
Underemployment: an employee whose education and/or experience exceed the requirements for the position.
Explain the following: self-directed search.
Self-Directed Search: When an individual conducts their own career/job search without the aid of a Career Counselor
Explain the following: Lifting Requirements Work Classifications
Lifting Requirements Work Classifications: the level of lifting ability required for a particular occupation - sedentary work requires a ten pound max., light work requires a max. of twenty pounds, medium work requires a max. of fifty pounds, up to one hundred pounds is required for heavy work, and very heavy work is rated at one hundred pounds or more.
Explain the following: Occupational Sex Segregation
Occupational Sex Segregation: occupations commonly thought of as female jobs usually have less pay and lower status than occupations regarded as work for men.
Explain how women have changed the US workforce in recent years.
In the past 10 years the number of women working full time has doubled and almost 50% of the labor forces is now female. On average women earn only about 75% of male wages. Minority women earn even less with Hispanic-American woman earning only 48% and African-American women earning 58%, while the earning level of Asian-American women is at 67%. Several social issues relating to children and family have developed from increased numbers of women in the workforce. Since many of them are of childbearing age, pregnancy problems and childbirth insurance are needed. Childbirth leave is a concern for many. Childcare is of great concern and many companies have added in-house daycare facilities.
Define the following: Halo Effect.
Halo Effect: a favorable evaluation of a personality based on the perception of a single trait.
Define the following: Difficulty index.
Difficulty Index: in testing the percentage of test takers who respond correctly to an item.
Define the following: Dichotomous items.
Dichotomous items: questions such as true/false that give the test taker opposing choices.
Define the following: Normative item format
Normative item format: unlinked items on a test.
Define the following: Normative test
Normative test: a person's test results can be compared to the scores of others - a percentile rank can be created.
Define the following: Ipsative format.
Ipsative formative: allows a person to compare two or more examples of his/her own performance - does not allow for comparison with others.
Define the following: Power test
Power test: untimed test - tests mastery level
Define the following: Speed tests
Speed tests: timed tests, difficulty is more in how quickly questions can be answered than in the content
Discuss the Self-Directed Search (SDS)
Developed by John Holland the Self-Directed Search (SDS) is an assessment tool that lets a person match his or her interests and personality types to careers of the same type. The SDS is based on the theory that all people fall into one of six categories - Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional - and that occupations can be categorized the same way. People are more likely to experience job satisfaction and success when their career matches their type. The SDS determines the three-letter Holland Code that can then be used to explore careers that match a person's interests and skills.
Define the following: Appraisal.
Appraisal: a variety of assessment tools including tests and surveys used to evaluate traits and behaviors.
Define the following: Measure
Measure: a score assigned to a person's traits or behavior.
Define the following: Test
Test: a systematic method of measuring or evaluating.
Define the following: Objective test items.
Objective test items: based on a universal standard such as multiple choice - require little or no judgment in scoring
Define the following: Subjective test items
Subjective test items: items such as essay questions - scoring of these items requires judgment and may reflect the scorer's bias.
Define the following: Projective tests.
Projective tests: unstructured tests that may reveal basic personality, concealed feelings, and internal conflicts.
Define the following: Free choice test.
Free choice test: short answer questions that elicit subject information
Define the following: Forced choice items.
Forced choice items: items such as true/false questions for which the test taker must recall information.
Define the following: Spiral test.
Spiral Test: starts with easier questions and progresses to the harder test.
Define the following: cyclical test
Cyclical test: test has multiple sections and the questions in each section progress in difficulty.
Define the following: test battery.
Test Battery: a collection of tests given to the same group of people and scored against the same standard.
Define the following: Horizontal test.
Horizontal test: a test procedure that covers material from different subjects
Define the following: Vertical tests.
Vertical Tests: tests on the same subject given at different levels or ages.
Define the following: Q-Sort
Q-Sort: a tool for measuring self-esteem by choosing statement-bearing cards that are "most like me" or "least like me"
Explain the DOT and O*Net
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), published by the US Department of Labor, contains descriptions of 12,000 types of occupations and more than 28,000 job titles. It details tasks and gives educational and skill requirements for each job. It is available in print form or as a download from the Information Technology Associates web page. The DOT and O*Net can be downloaded together or both are available on a CD-ROM.

O*Net is the Occupational Information Network, a comprehensive database of occupational information and employee requirements. It features assessment and other occupation exploration tools. Eventually it will replace the DOT and become America's primary source of employment information.
Explain Career Education.
Career Education: programs that add career education to the curricula from kindergarten through high school - intended to create career awareness in the elementary grades, explore careers in middle school and junior high school and prepare for a career in high school.
Explain retirement counseling.
Retirement Counseling: helps people prepare for retirement by providing information on expectations including financial; home, social, and family life; medical and health issues; and legal matters.
Explain Displaced homemaker.
Displaced homemaker: a woman reentering the workforce or entering it for the first time after raising a family as a stay-at-home parent - often applied to a divorced or widowed woman who must support herself and may or may not have dependent children.
Explain dislocated worker.
Dislocated worker: a person unemployed because of job elimination, downsizing, company relocation, or company closing.
Define the following: Family & Medical Leave Act.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): requires companies that employ fifty or more persons to provide up to 12 weeks of leaves without pay during any 12 months for childbirth or because of illness of a member of the employee's immediate family.
Define the following: Glass ceiling.
Glass ceiling: by unwritten agreement among the decision makers the highest level in an organization that a person (a woman or a minority) is allowed to reach.
Define the following: Leisure.
Leisure: time away from work during which a person can decide what to do - also refers to pleasure activities.
Explain the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH)
Occupational Outlook Handout (OOH): a compilation of data concerning employment trends and outlooks, salaries, required training and education etc., published every other year by the US Department of Labor.
Explain the Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE): a compilation of data concerning occupations, skills and abilities, work environments, salaries, etc., divided into areas of interest.
Explain the 1994 School-to-Work Opportunities Act.
1994 School-to-Work Opportunities Act: federally funded program to provide money for work based learning, school based learning and connecting activities that encourage collaboration between educational institutions and employers.
Explain the "hidden job market"
Hidden Job Market: employment opportunities that are not advertised and new employees are recruited by networking -- approximately 80% of jobs.
Describe the issues faced when counseling dual-career/dual-earner couples.
In an increasing # of families both partners are wage earners or are pursuing careers. Among the conflicts that can arise are the inequity of wages when one earns more (especially if it is much more) than the other, sex-role stereotypes and expectations, inequity of home maintenance and child care responsibilities, and questions of how money is handled and spent. Career advancement can cause conflict if one advances faster than the other or advancement for one partner requires relocation.
Define outsourcing.
Outsourcing is the shifting of activities to an agency outside a company or organization or the moving of operations to a non-US location. Some companies use independent contractors for certain types of jobs rather than using employees since contractors do not receive benefits and taxes and social security do not have to be deducted. In recent years many companies have closed factories and other operations in the United States and moved all or part of their production, technical support, and information services to countries where wages are lower and benefits less or nonexistent.
Discuss considerations needed when providing counseling services to adults who have sexual orientation issues.
Since many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) persons conceal the fact that they are members of a sexual minority, it is very likely that most counselors work with them without ever realizing they do so. When the counselor is aware that the client has a LBGT sexual orientation, then such issues as self-concept as it relates to sexual identification, whether or not the client is "out" and to what extent, whether or not s/he prefers to be out at work, and how s/he handles discrimination must be dealt with. While many major companies are known to be gay/trans friendly, small local businesses may be very discriminatory. In order to work successfully with LGBT persons, the counselor must be accepting or at least able to keep his/her personal prejudices from affecting how s/he works with the client.
Describe the World-of-Work Map.
The World-of-Work Map is a graphic illustration of how occupations are related via primary tasks. The primary tasks are working with data, ideas, people or things. The map was developed by ACT. It is a circle divided into six segments, each represents a cluster of occupations that correspond to John Holland's six occupational types. The types are Administration & Sales, Business Operations, Technical, Science & Technology, Arts, and Social Service. Each cluster is divided into two regions and has from three to seven career areas. Two versions exist; one for counselors to use and the other for students.
Explain the use of computer-assisted career guidance systems.
Modern technology has added a tool to the resources available to the career counselor in the form of computer-assisted career guidance systems. The System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI Plus), produced by Valpar International, and Discover, produced by American College Testing, have the ability to determine interests, skills and values. They also offer some guidance through activities and provide extensive information. Choices, produced by Bridges Transitions Inc., Focus II, a production of Career Dimensions, and Coordinated Occupational Information Network (COIN), produced by Coin Educational Products, offer information about careers and educational institutions, but have more limited assessment capability. Software is available to assist people in writing resumes, developing interview skills, and job searching. Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS), offered through many state employment offices, includes assessment, employment searching, and information about occupations and education.
Define the following term: Lifestyle.
Lifestyle: the overall pattern of a person's life including such factors as career, home life, romantic partner, interests, hobbies, and recreation.
Define the following term: Expressed interest.
Expressed interest: an interest that a person openly says s/he has
Define the following term: Manifested interest.
Manifested interest: an interest that is revealed by what a person does.
Define the following term: Tested interest.
Tested interest: determination of a person's interests through testing.
Define the following term: Outplacement counseling.
Outplacement counseling: career counseling for employees whose jobs are ending - may include job placement services.
List the area of assessment and give examples of the testing and assessment tools used in career counseling.
Assessment and testing tools can be divided into five types: aptitude, achievement, interest, personality, and values. O*Net Resource Center has developed a set of exploration/assessment tools called profilers which includes Interest Profiler and Ability Profiler (aptitude). They have also produced the Work Importance Profiler, which is a values measure. Other aptitude tests include ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery), and the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). Achievement measurement instruments include the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Tests), ACT (American College Test), GRE (Graduate Record Exam) and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). Some of the interest tests available are Career Assessment Inventory (CAI), Campbell Interest and Skills Survey, Kuder Career Search with Person Match, and the Self Directed Search (SDS). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment tool. Values assessment tools include Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised and the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire.
Discuss the Internet resources available for career development.
The Internet has much to offer job seekers and career counselors. Counselors must be familiar with this tool, competent in its use and willing to use it, and familiar with major sites that can be useful to himself and the clients. Information available on the Internet includes educational resources, financial aid information, government and military information, information about particular businesses and corporations, job listings, job search sites, and help with resumes, interview skills, etc. Some corporations accept applications via the Internet and some accept them only that way. Internet job postings are superceding the "Want Ad" newspaper listings. Among the sites with which counselors should be familiar are US Department of Education, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Military Career Guide, America's Job Bank,, CareerBuilder, America's Career InfoNet, and Imdiversity, which offers information for minorities and women.
Explain the limitations of career theories.
Although career theories are still evolve and new ones are being developed, many of the classic theories grew out of studies done in the 1950s and 1960s. The subjects of the studies were usually young, middle-class white males, either college-bound, in college, or with college educations. Little work was done with females, with persons of color, or with people from the lower socioeconomic levels, although some attempts were made to apply the theories to these groups. The growing employment of women and socioeconomic gains by the non-white segments of the workforce has created a need for new theories. The occupations are changing also as the predominance of manufacturing is giving way to a more technical and highly skilled range of career choices.
Describe the career counseling process.
First the counselor establishes a rapport with the client, giving the client pertinent information about himself/herself and learning basic facts about the client. Assessment comes next and may recur throughout the counseling. Both standard instruments and informal means may be used to ascertain the client's needs, goals, aptitudes, etc. The counselor gives information to the client concerning career opportunities and resources. He may direct the client to resources the client can use to find information for himself. The client makes a decision once he has resolved the problem and has the information he needs. The client implements his decision.
Discuss considerations needed when providing counseling services to adults in career transition and multicultural individuals.
Both mature adults and persons from minority cultures will need attention to details that do not apply to young people from the majority. For adults who have lost their jobs or want to change careers such factors as obsolete skills and knowledge, physical and family limitations, life-style expectations and changes, and approaching retirement must be identified and addressed. In dealing with minorities, the counselor will need to learn about their cultural values and address issues arising from the culture, including discrimination and prejudice, stereotypes, and the relationship of career to family and community. Both groups may be unacquainted with current technology and may need assistance with resume writing, interview skills and how to locate employment opportunities.
Define the following: Undecided vs. indecisive.
Undecided vs. indecisive: the condition of a person who needs additional information in order to make a decision. Indecisive - is descriptive of a person who has trouble reaching a decision even with full information.
Define the following: compensatory vs. spillover theories of leisure.
Compensatory leisure theory: a person's occupation is the most important component of his or her life and leisure is compensation for either job boredom or job excitement. Spillover leisure theory - a person's occupation has an effect on his or her personality and leisure activities will be similar to occupational ones.
Define the following: career guidance vs. career counseling.
career guidance: helps a person develop skills for making decisions and to acquire information about opportunities in occupations and education.

career counseling: works within the contest of a person's values and attitudes to help him or her acquire self-understanding as well as information about careers.
List the competencies expected of professional career counselors.
Professional counselors should possess the following competencies:
(1) Extensive knowledge of counseling theories, techniques, and models, especially those specific to career counseling.
(2) Skill in working with both individuals & groups.
(3) The ability to use assessment techniques for both individuals & groups.
(4) Knowledge of resources and trends, especially those relevant to the locality.
(5) Management and leadership skills.
(6) Ability to coach.
(7) Respect for & ability to work with persons from various ethnic, religious, sexual, & socioeconomic backgrounds.
(8) Supervisory skills.
(9) An understanding of ethics & legal issues & the ability to abide by them.
(10) Research & evaluation skills.
(11) An understanding of & ability to use current technology.
Discuss considerations needed when providing counseling services to adults who have disabilities.
Not all disabilities are visible or limit a person's ability to perform a job. During the intake interview and assessment the counselor should determine if the client has a disability and to what extent the disability will limit the choice of career. The client's self-concept, how well s/he has adjusted to the disability, social skills, how s/he copes with daily life, and any past employment must be assessed and considered in the counseling. The counselor should be knowledgeable about the American's With Disabilities Act and state and local laws and aid including rehabilitation opportunities and assistance. It is helpful if the counselor is aware of local businesses that are especially accepting of persons with disabilities as well as those that are likely to be less welcoming.
Explain the Social Cognitive Theory of career development.
Using concepts from Bandura's social learning theory, the social cognitive theory is based on self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a person's belief or knowledge about what he or she is able to do and is a critical factor in choosing a career. Another key factor is personal agency, which is the person's ability to actually accomplish a goal. Performance, education, social environment and physical condition can strengthen a person's self-efficacy. Career counseling would be aimed toward increasing the client's self-efficacy.
Explain the theories of Mark Savickas and H.B. Gelatt.
Savickas's view of career counseling fits into the postmodern social constructivism approach. He sees the counselor as a catalyst who helps clients make sense of their lives and occupations. He uses a narrative method to guide a client in the building of a reality that fits with their social and cultural environment. Gelatt developed a five-step method for making decisions.
(1) recognize that a decision is needed.
(2) collect information and examine possible actions
(3) examine the probability of possible outcomes
(4) remember your value system
(5) make a decision which can be either temporary or permanent. His later, whole-brained approach is called "Positive Uncertainty" and considers both rational and intuitive components. He also developed a 2x4 process that designates two attitudes and four factors. "The attitudes are (1) accept the past, present and future as uncertain, and (2) be positive about the uncertainty. The factors are (1) what you want, (2) what you know, (3) what you believe, and (4) what you do." (From Positive Uncertainty: A Paradoxical Philosophy of Counseling Whose Time Has Come by H.B. Gelatt in ERIC Educational Reports.)
Explain the career development theory of John Crites.
Crites formulated his theory of career counseling after reviewing and writing the major approaches to the subject. His theory is a comprehensive synthesis of those approaches plus some of his own ideas. He dealt with issues of diagnosis, the counseling process, and outcomes. His work reflects the influence of trait-and-factor and developmental career counseling. He believes that the diagnosis determines the outcome of the counseling. He identified three types of diagnosis: differential, which determines what the problem is; dynamic, which identifies the reasons for the problem; and decisional, which establishes how the problem is dealt with. he developed, used, and recommended that other counselors use the Career Maturity Inventory.
Explain the constructivism and contextualism approaches to career development.
Both constructivism and contextualism are postmodern approaches to career development. The main idea of constructivism is that each person builds his or her own reality. The counselor helps the clients to understand the meaning of their life stories and the life roles each plays,, as well as the relationship between those roles and their values and beliefs. Contextualism acknowledges a close relationship between a person's inner forces and that person's environment. Contextualism counselors believe each client's reality is drawn from his or her perception of an event and that each client has a personal way of organizing information. In counseling the clients are encouraged to draw meaning from a situation and to consider the situation in its entirety rather than giving attention to a detail of the situation. Clients are also encouraged to regard their behavior from a cognitive and social context viewpoint.
Describe the Sociological model of career development.
The sociological model of career development can also be called a situational model. This approach posits that a person chooses a career because of sociological reasons. In order to choose an occupation, the person must have some knowledge about that occupation. A person's choice is also influenced by such factors as ethnicity and cultural background, which can lead a person to choose a certain type of work or keep him from doing so. Other factors that may influence career decisions include the availability of jobs locally, the requirement for relocation, risks involved in the work, necessary education or training and its availability, and the image of workers in a particular field.
Explain the self-efficacy theory.
According the self-efficacy theory, what a person expects influences what she or he doesn't, how much effort is used, and she or he will persist if there are are difficulties. In career development, the expectations are choice, performance, and persistence. Nancy Betz and Gail Hackett, among other theorists, believe gender variation in career decisions can be accounted for by self-efficacy, since a person's environment is an important element of his or her self-efficacy.
Describe the Circumscription and Compromise theory of career development.
Developed in the 1980s by Linda Gottfredson, the Circumscription and Compromise theory explains how vocational choice develops in children and teenagers. Vocational choices are narrowed (circumscribed) and inappropriate choices discarded (compromise) as the person develops and learns about career possibilities. Gottfredson described four stages of development.
(1) Orientation to size and power is the period from age three to age five.
(2) Orientation to sex roles is the years btw. six and eight when the child learns that many vocations are considered appropriate for one sex or the other.
(3) Orientation to social valuation: occurs btw. the ages of nine and 13 during which time the child learns that society, including their peers and family, place values on particular occupations.
(4) Orientation to internal unique self begins at about the age of fourteen as the child's interests and ambitions influence his or her vocational choice. A person's self-concept determines a range of acceptable choices.
Explain the theory of Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma.
As developmentalists, Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma accepted the idea that occupational choice can be divided into three periods:
(1) Fantasy - up to the age of 11, during which period the child may use any occupation in play.
(2) Tentative - age 11-17, during which time the child examines careers in light of interests and values and his or her own capabilities.
(3) Realistic - 17-adulthood, when the person makes a choice. The third period is subdivided into three stages:
1. Exploration: during which the person limits vocational choices to personal interests and abilities.
2. Crystallization: during which a definite choice is made.
3. Specification: during which the person is educated for his or her choice of vocation. This theory was based on a study of a small group of young men from the middle-class in the 1950s and rather ignored the fact that gender, race and social standing were important factors in occupation choice at that time.
Describe Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman's decision-making model.
Tiedeman & O'Hara saw career development as parallel to Erikson' psychosocial stages and believed that career decisions were made as ego related problems were solved. They believed that career decisions were related to other decisions one made about other areas of one's life and that each person can choose his or her career. They saw career decisions as a two-phase continuing process and identified the phases as anticipation/preoccupation, during which a person imagines himself working at a particular job and implementation/adjustment, when the person actually works at that job. Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman emphasized the key role an individual plays in making career decisions.
Describe John Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC).
Influenced by Bandura, Krumboltz identified four important factors in career related decision making.
(1) Genetic endowments and special abilities that could limit a person's occupational choices.
(2) Environmental conditions and events in a person's life such as education, activities, economic conditions and personal resources.
(3) Instrumental and associative learning about careers including the reactions and reinforcement from others.
(4) Task approach skills which include problem-solving ability, working and thinking patterns, and emotions. he saw learning as a life-long process and thought a person's beliefs could be changed through career counseling. He also believed that chance events could influence a person's career development. In working with clients he made use of the Career Beliefs Inventory.
Discuss Roe's career development theory.
Anne Roe's theory of career development was a needs approach in which genetics, childhood experiences, and the relationship with parents were contributing factors to the choice of a career. She believed that the parenting style would determine whether or not a person would be people-orientated. She also subscribed to Maslow's theory that careers are chosen to meet needs; a people-orientated person chooses a career that involves working with people while a non-people-orientated person will chose a career with less involvement with others. Roe pioneered the use of a two-dimensional occupational classification using fields and levels. The eight occupational fields she identified are: service, business contact, organization or managerial, technology, outdoor, science, general cultural, and arts and entertainment. Technology, outdoor, and science are non0person orientated careers. She also identified six levels of occupational skill: high level professional and managerial or p&m1; regular level professional and managerial or p&m2; semi-professional and managerial or semi-professional and small business; skilled, semi-skilled; and unskilled.
Describe the cognitive information processing (CIP) career development theory.
In 2001 the CIP career development theory was formulated by Sampson, Reardon, Peterson and Lenz. It is a method of dealing with career problems by using a series of sequential steps.
(1) communication, which identifies the person's career needs.
(2) analysis, identifies the components of the problem and sets up a conceptual framework.
(3) synthesis, which defines possible actions
(4) valuing, which prioritizes the possibilities according to their likelihood of success
(5) execution, in which the person implements the solution

Career counseling using this theory has the goal of identifying the needs of the client and helping him or her gain the skill and knowledge that will fulfill the needs.
Discuss the decision approach to career development.
The decision approach to vocational guidance is a broader perspective than the trait-based approach. Proponents of this approach think that vocational education should be an integral part of all students' entire education. H.B. Gelatt identified two types of decisions: terminal or final decisions and investigatory decisions. A person makes investigatory decisions with added information until he or she reaches a terminal decision. Gelatt devised a model that illustrates the decision-making process and shows information divided into predictive, value, and decision systems.
List the life roles defined by Donald Super.
Super identified eight life roles that describe the ways people spend time and energy. The child is the time spent relating to parents and lasts throughout the life of the parents. The student is time spent in education, starts in early childhood and may last into older adulthood. Leisurite is Super's coined word for time spent in leisure activities. The citizen is time spent volunteering or in other work for the community. The worker is the time one spends working for pay. The parent is time spent caring for a child; lasts throughout the child's dependent years and in many cases well beyond. The spouse is the time spent in a committed relationship. The homemaker is the time spent in maintaining a home -- housework, yard work, repairs, shopping, etc.
List John Holland's modal personality types.
Using an actuarial approach Holland developed a theory that the choice of career is an outgrowth of personality that is influenced by the stereotypes people hold of different types of employment. He identified six modal personal orientations that he believed all people have in varying degrees.
(1) The realistic personality type is active and aggressive, prefers explicit tasks, and may not relate very well to others. Career choices would be mechanical or technical work.
(2) The investigative personality is intellectual, prefers creative activities, and may have poor social skills. Typical career choices would be in the sciences or the computer field.
(3) Artistic personalities are imaginative and expressive, with a preference for activities that are not rigidly ordered or systematic. Typical career choices would be something in the arts or some other creative field.
(4) Social personality types enjoy interaction with others and imparting information and have little interest in tools or mechanical devices. Teaching or counseling would be typical careers for them.
(5) Enterprising people are extroverted leaders who are willing to take chances and have little use for abstract thinking. Politics and business are possible careers.
(6) Conventional personality types are practical with a dislike for unorganized or ambiguous activities. Possible careers include office work and accounting.
List Donald Super's vocational development stages and vocational development tasks.
The stages are:
(1) Growth: birth to 14 or 15 - self-concept, attitudes, interests, and needs develop, child develops a general understanding of the world of work
(2) Exploratory: 15-24 - person explores choices through classes, work, and hobbies, makes tentative choice and develops related skills.
(3) Establishment: 25-44 - builds skills and stabilizes in a work situation.
(4) Maintenance: 45-64 - adjustments are made to improve job situation.
(5) Decline: 65+ person prepares for retirement,, retires.

The development tasks are:
(1) Crystallization: 14-18 - develops and plans a possible occupational goal.
(2) Specification: 18-21 - chooses a specific vocation.
(3) Implementation: 21-24 - completes training and enters the job market.
(4) Stabilization: 24-35 - works at a chosen career.
(5) Consolidation: 35+ - establishes self in career. According to Super these tasks can be repeated as a person adapts to changes in himself or herself or the work environment changes. They are also somewhat outdated since they were based on middle class white males with college educations during the 1950s and 1960s.
Describe Super's Archway Model, Life Career Rainbow, and Career Pattern Study.
The Archway Model delineates the changing diversity of life roles a person experiences over his or her life span and illustrates how biographical, psychological, and socioeconomic elements influence the development of a career. The name for the model came from the fact that it was modeled on the doorway of his favorite Cambridge college. The Life Career Rainbow is a graphic illustration in which each colored band represents a life role and numbers around the outer edge indicate age. The amount of time a person typically spends in each role is indicated by dots of varying sizes within the bands. The Rainbow can be used to help a person find a balance of work and life that is suited to himself or herself. The Career Pattern Study followed the vocational behavior of a group from the ninth grade to thirty years of age. The study revealed that a person who was mature and an achiever while in high school would likely be a successful young adult.
Explain how the hexagon relates to John Holland's theory.
Holland's hexagon is a graphic illustration of the correlation between his six personality types and six occupational environments or categories that he called themes. The themes are positioned on the hexagon so that those with the most similarity are closest together and those with the most differences farther apart. A person's scores on the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search determine which work environment is the best fit for his or her personality. Holland believed that most people are not clearly of a single personality type, but will have characteristics from two or three types.
Discuss how Adlerian theory is applied in group work, including multicultural considerations.
Adlerian theory has its base in the ideas that human behavior is purposeful and goal0oriented and that feelings of inferiority and a lack of social connectedness created emotional problems. In a group using Adlerian theory, the counselor guides the group members as they examine their early history, the roles of their families in their lives, their birth order, their lifestyles, and their belief systems. The group activities help the members to become aware of their strengths, improve their self-esteem, and accept responsibility for their behavior. This type of counseling may not be the best fit for clients from cultures that discourage sharing personal information.
Define the following term: risky shift phenomenon.
Risky Shift Phenomenon: a person is likely to make a riskier decision as part of a group than he or she would alone.
Define the following term: T-group.
T-group: a training group - can be for improving human relations such as a sensitivity training group.
Define the following term: Self-help.
Self-help: can be a support group - a group of people who share a common problem such as weight control or drinking - leader may not be a professional counselor - members share knowledge and encourage each other.
Define the following term: Sociometry.
Sociometry: a method developed by Jacob Moreno for measuring social relationships in groups.
Define the following term: Karpman's drama triangle.
Karpman's drama triangle: in transactional analysis a psychological and social model of interactions that shows the roles of victim, persecutor, and rescuer.
Define the following term: Horizontal intervention.
Horizontal intervention: the counselor works with the group as a whole.
Define the following term: Vertical intervention.
Vertical intervention: the counselor works with individuals within the group.
Define the following term: Group work grid.
Group work grid: developed by R.K. Coyne - a model that shows four levels of intervention (individual, interpersonal, organization, and community population).
Discuss the actuarial approach to career development.
The actuarial or trait-based approach to vocational guidance was developed by Frank Parsons. This approach assumes people are rational and capable of making intelligent vocational decisions when they are aware of which careers are best suited to their interests and aptitudes. Psychometric testing is used to discover the traits that determine in which employment fields a person is likely to succeed. The Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales is one such test and was used by Edmund G. WIlliamson to expand Parson's model.
Describe the differences between group sessions that are structured versus unstructured.
Some structure is required at the start of any group in order to take care of the necessary chores of getting the group organized, setting goals, etc. The leader of an unstructured group will take a laissez faire approach to the later sessions and there will be few rules and guidelines for how the sessions will progress. A structured group will have a leader who is either authoritarian or democratic. Group activities will be planned and techniques chosen to follow the particular type of counseling used.
Give a brief history of career development.
Before 1900 there was little literature or other information available to young people about careers and vocational choices. Jessie B. Davis, a school guidance counselor in Detroit btw. 1898 and 1907 is credited with starting the first systematic school guidance program. In 1908 Frank Parsons, who is known as the "Father of Vocational Guidance," est. the Boston Vocational Bureau. In 1913 the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed. The progressive education movement during the 20s and 30s contributed to the growth of school counseling which included vocational guidance. Testing to determine the interests and aptitudes of students grew out of the tests used by the military during the 40s. Further growth in vocational guidance was encouraged by the space race of the 50s and 60s. In 1985 the National Vocational Guidance Association became part of the American Counseling Association as the National Career Development Association. In addition to Parsons and Davis, important people in the field include Eli Ginzberg, Sol Ginsburg, Sidney Axelrad, John Herma, Donald Super, John Holland, Linda Gottfredson, and John Krumboltz.
Discuss the developmental approach to career development.
The developmental approach is based on the theory that career development occurs through stages over a period of time. The approach is holistic and recognizes the interaction of the person with his or her environment. Vocation guidance in this mode helps to educate the student and increase skills and competence. Self-concept, need, and life-span changes are part of the process. So is the change or reversal of early career choices. A leading name in the field is Gottfredson, who devised a four-stage theory of development.
Discuss how person-centered theory can be applied to group work including multi-cultural considerations.
The goals of a person-centered group are to help the members better understand themselves and to bring each one closer to self-actualization. The counselor for such a group will establish an atmosphere that encourages th members to be open and to express their opinions and emotions as they work toward changing their self-concepts. There will be few structured techniques, and the counselor will practice active listening and reflection. In such a group multicultural values will be respected, but some clients may prefer a more structured and less open approach.
Discuss the application of transactional analysis theory to group work, including multicultural considerations.
The counselor in a transactional analysis group serves as a teacher. The goal of the group is to change the life pattern of each member through increasing self-awareness and awareness of others, the understanding of past life scripts and the games in one's life, and freeing oneself from them. The counselor may use such techniques and role-playing, contracts, interrogation, and confrontation. Transactional analysis is appropriate for clients from many different cultures since its emphasis on the past can allow for cultural values.
Discuss rational emotive behavior counseling groups, including multicultural considerations.
The counselor for a rational emotive behavior group must balance process and outcome orientated activities. Among the techniques he or she may use are role-playing, self-discipline exercises, homework, and modeling. The goals of a group involved in this type of cognitive therapy include changes n thought and behavior patterns that promote greater self-acceptance and eliminate self-defeating behaviors and illogical thinking. The counseling is based more on thought and action instead of on the expression of emotions. This type of group appeals to clients from cultures that place a high value on strong leaders as well as those that discourage the display of emotions.
Discuss the application of Gestalt theory to group work, including multicultural considerations.
Gestalt therapy is based on the idea that mature persons determine their own path in life and accept responsibility for their decisions and actions. Gestalt counseling groups have the goal of helping group members become more aware of their thoughts and emotions in present time so that they may translate that awareness into changes toward maturity. Techniques such as guided fantasy, role-0playing, and confrontation are used. In a multicultural group, techniques can be chosen and adapted to accommodate the different cultural backgrounds of the group members.
Discuss behavioral counseling groups, including multicultural considerations.
The counselor for a behavioral group is a teacher and expert. The goal of the group is to modify problem behaviors and improve each member's coping skills. Techniques may include such activities as contracts, reinforcement, modeling and analysis of the learning process and the situations that produce the troublesome behaviors. Behavioral counseling may appeal to multicultural clients because the emphasis is not on expressing emotion, goals are specific, and the duration of the counseling short-term. One consideration for clients from some cultures is fitting the changed behaviors into their cultural context.
Discuss how Reality theory is applied to group work, including multicultural considerations.
In a reality counseling group the counselor guides the members as they examine their behavior, develop plans for change, and carry out their plans. He or she must also tailor activities and goals so that the individual concerns of the members are considered. The aim of the therapy is for the group members to improve their life situation through gaining better control of and more responsibility for their behavior. Persons from cultures that do not like to reveal emotions may find this type of group a good fit.
List the leadership functions defined by Yalom.
Among the functions necessary for leaders in group counseling is the creation of a caring environment that will encourage trust and self-disclosure among the group members. The leader must also manage the group, guiding the activities, setting the pace for the sessions, and stopping any inappropriate interactions. He or she must interpret what takes place by clarifying, reviewing and explaining. The leader must encourage the members to express emotions, values, opinions, and beliefs and to confront and challenge each other when such activity is appropraite.
Discuss Jacob Moreno's theories on group counseling.
Moreno, who was associatied in the 20s with the "Theater of Spontaneity" in Vienna, became a leading figure in the use of psychodrama. He believed psychodrama could be used to help a troubled person reach insight and catharsis, as well as for reality testing. In using psychodrama the group leader serves as the director with members of the group taking the needed actor roles, including that of the protagonist, which other members serve as the audience. A portion of the meeting room may serve as the stage or the action may move to a different location.
Discuss multicultural issues that must be considered in the group counseling setting.
Before starting work with a group that will include multicultural members, the counselor needs to educate himself/herself about those cultures. Attention to such factors as manners (greetings, whether or not it is polite to look directly at or touch a person, etc.), sharing personal information, and displaying emotion are especially important since different ethnic groups place different values on such factors. What is completely acceptable to a persoon from one background may be unforgivable insult to a person from another. A discussion of such differences along with information about the prupose, goals, and techniques of the group plus a question and answer session may need to be a large portion of the first group meeting. For the group to develop cohesion, it is essential that cultural differences be respected.
Provide details of Michael Waldo's theories on group counseling.
According to Michael Waldo the problems or the group members should determine the type of leadership appropriate for that group. The problems should also determine whether the group is an inpatient or outpatient one and other such functions as time limits and the goals of the group. Other functions that should be determined by the type of client involved would include the level of emotional stimulation, how strictly the leader controls the content of the meeting and how he or she fits that content to the group members.
Give the purpose of family counseling.
Family counseling is a type of group counseling. the group involved may be a single family or consist of members from several families. the goal of these groups is to identify problems in the family and resolve the problems by improving communications, changing behaviors and creating different interaction patterns. The counselor may work with parents and children together, or in group couples counseling, with just the adult couples. In group couples counseling, the group may deal with problems between the couple or problems the couple has with their children.
Discuss how psychoanalytic theory can be applied to group work, including multicultural considerations.
Since psychoanalytic counseling involves dealing with today's problems by exposing and understanding the past, such a group will concentrate on family history, early relationships, and suppressed emotions. Such factors will be discussed, analyzed, and interpreted. Such open handling of personal information and the exposure of emotions may be unpleasant or even impossible for persons from cultures that put a high value on reticence and reserve. Persons from some cultures will want the counselor to be authoritarian and may not like the long-term commitment usually required by psychoanalysis.
List the positive aspects of working with a co-leader.
Having more than one leader for a group gives the members a wider range of experiences and isnights, especially when the leaders are of different genders, races, cultural backgrounds, etc. Co-leaders facilitate interaction within the group, provide a safer environment, reduce burnout, and insure that the group can continue when one leader must be absent. For the co-leadership to be successful, the leaders must be cohesive, share theoretical orientations, trust each other's competence, and not indulge in behavior that might fragment the group. While all co-leaders benefit from the situation through regular exchanges of information and feedback and the shared responsibility, such an arrangement is especially helpful for new leaders when they are teamed with more experienced persons.
Discuss the screening process of group counseling members.
Prospective members for a counseling group are usually screened through an interview with the group leader. Typically the counselor will discuss the goals and purpose of the group, the rules, the appropriateness of the group for the prospect's needs, and confidentiality issues with the prospect. The counselor will try to assess the attitude, motivation, and characteristics of the prospective member, since successful groups need members who are of similar intellectual levels and who do not exhibit disruptive or dominating behavior. During the interview, the prospective member should have a chance to explore whether or not group counseling is appropriate for him or her.
Discuss the stages of a group.
Groups develop through stages as the participants get acquainted and learn to work together. Three or four main stages have been identified by leaders in the field. Formation or Trust/Orientation is the period when each member decides if he or she can fit into the group, if s/he can be comfortable with the leader and the other members, and to what extent s/he will participate. Work/Productivity or Transition is the stage during which the group members show caring and empathy for each other, give feedback, encourage each other, and confront each other when needed. Participants began to see how they can accomplish their goals and positive changes take place. Closure or Consolidation and termination is the period during which the group reviews what has been accomplished and if some goals were not met. The leader encourages members to continue to use the skills they have gained through the group.
List the four issues that must be considered when forming
The first issue is membership - will the group be homogeneous with members who have a similar problem or heterogeneous with members who have separate problems and may have trouble relating to each other? Will the group be open and welcoming to new members if some original members leave or closed with a set group of members? The second issue is the size of the group. Optimum size for an adult group is eight, but children's groups should be smaller with only three to four members for the very young. Duration of the group is the third issue. For how long will the group meet? The fourth and final issue is the duration of the meetings, which can run ninety minutes to two hours for adult outpatients, but should be no more than twenty or thirty minutes for young children.
List the ethical considerations that apply to group counseling.
Before the sessions begin the members should be fully informed of what to expect and what will be required of them. They should consent to participation unless their attendance is required for some reason. If a member is a juvenile, the informed consent would apply to a parent or guardian. The members should be informed if the sessions will be connected in any way to a research project. They should understand the rights they have -- freedom from undue pressure, voluntary participation, and freedom to leave the group. Information concerning the skills and competencies of the group's leader(s) and the resources available to the participants should be given to each member. The importance and limits of confidentiality, both as it applies to what the counselor learns about each member and what they learn about each other, should be carefully explained.
List the 11 curative factors of group counseling identified by Irvin Yalom.
The 11 curative factors are:
1. Instillation of hope: which encourages participants to continue with the group since it seems likely that needs will be met.
2. Universality: which lets the group members know that they are not alone with their problems.
3. Imparting of information: Participants share information and resources and give advice to each other.
4. altruism: raises self-esteem, helps the members feel needed and useful
5. Corrective emotional experience: increases understanding of how one interacts with others
6. development of socializing techniques: members develop coping and conflict resolution skills
7. imitative behavior: members learn by seeing how others solve problems
8. interpersonal behavior: the group can provide positive interpersonal relationships
9. group cohesiveness: the group provides a safe environment with feedback
10. catharsis: emotions can be purged
11. existential factors: participants learn that they must take personal responsibility for their own behavior
Groups are defined in part by their goals. List types of groups and their primary goals.
Guidance: basically educational and may be led by someone without formal psychological training. These groups are often used by schools and other youth organizations in an effort to prevent behaviors such as teen pregnancy or drinking. "Affective education group" or psychological education group" are other names for this type.

Counseling: lead by a trained counselor, this type of group has the goals of preventing problems and helping participants to grow and develop.

Psychotherapy: lead by a professional with advanced training, these groups address severe problems involving remediation and treatment.

Psychoeducation: used by social services, mental health agencies, and universities, these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems.

Structured: deals with a single problem such as anger management or drinking.

Self-Helf: leader is not usually a professionally trained counselor; these groups help participants deal with such stress-inducing issues as weight control.

T-group (training group) these groups are often used to help employees build and improve interpersonal skills.
Discuss the roles of group members.
Each member of group assumes a role. Some roles advance the work of the group, some promote social interaction, but others hinder the functioning of the group. Among the work-related roles are the information seeker, the opinion-seeker, the opinion-giver, the energizer, the initiator, and the elaborator. Social roles include the encourager, the compromiser, the standard setter, and the follower. Hindering roles include the aggressor, the blocker, the recognition seeker, the dominator, and the special interest pleader.
List the core skills needed by group counselors according to the Association for Specialists in Group Work.
Counselors must be able to manage the group by opening and closing sessions, keeping the session on track, connecting common issues, insuring that each member works on his or her issue, confronting the behavior of members, and stopping unproductive behavior. They must encourage participation by all members, be supportive of the group members, and be attentive to and acknowledge the behavior of each member. They must have the ability to act as teacher and model, give and receive feedback, clarify and summarize statements, practice self-disclosure, ask questions including open-ended ones, provide empathy, observe and identify group process events, assist members in integrating and applying experience and learning, listen actively, and set goals. The counseling theories and group dynamics. Finally, they must adhere to the ethical and professional standards of group practice.
Discuss the meaning of group dynamic and cohesion.
The dynamics of the group is the way the participants interact with each other and with the counselor or leader. The goals of the group, the content of the discussion, the process of the session, and the development of trust among the group members all contribute to the dynamics. Cohesion is the development of a sense of belonging and inclusion among the members. This usually results from self-disclosure by the members along with the lowering of defenses and commitments to each other. The group develops cohesion more quickly when the members have some characteristics in common.
Discuss leadership styles.
Three main styles of leadership have been identified. Autocratic or authoritarian leaders may accomplish goals quickly but may generate resentment because of their exercise of control and power. Democratic leadership is inclusive of all members of the group, allowing all to contribute, and helping to generate feelings of belongs. However this style is not the best for all situations. Leaders who practice laissez faire set few rules or structures and allow members to do as they wish. This style can be quite effective with groups committed to a common goal such as a workgroup.
Define the following term: universality.
Universality: something that is true for all times and places, also the understanding that one is not alone in experiencing a particular problem or situation.
Define the following term: intellectualization.
Intellectualization: using reasoning to protect oneself from emotional stress or conflict.
Define the following term: scapegoating.
Scapegoating: blaming someone who may not be responsible for the action or event.
Define the following term: resistance.
Resistance: behavior in a group that interferes with the work of the group.
Define the following term: norms.
Norms: a group's standards of acceptable behaviors.
Define the following term: gatekeeper.
Gatekeeper: a person in a group who wants to be in charge and tries to manage the group - may not work on his or her own problems.
Define the following term: isolate role.
Isolate role: the person in a group who receives little or no attention -- he or she may be afraid to participate or other in the group may actually ignore him or her.
Define the terms: stress inoculation.
Stress inoculation: an effective technique for dealing with stress developed by Donald Meichenbaum as part of his "Self-Instructional Therapy". It has three phases:
1. educational: in which the problem is identified and the client is given information about what to expect,
2. rehearsal, in which the client practices the stressful event or behavior while using relaxation techniques
3. implementation: in which the client uses the new skills to deal with the stressful situation.
Define the term: Racket
Racket: in Transactional Analysis a set of behaviors that originate from a childhood script
Define the term: collecting trading stamps
Collecting Trading Stamps: in Transactional Analysis, the saving up of enduring, non-genuine feelings, then "trading" them for a script milestone such as a drinking binge or an anger outburst.
Define the term: Retroflection.
Retroflection: doing to oneself what one would like to do to someone else.
Define the term: Attending.
Attending: the attention the counselor pays to the client during a session, includes listening to the client and both verbal and nonverbal interaction. In task-facilitative attending behavior the counselor's attention is on the client. In distractive attending behavior the counselor's attention is on her or her own concerns.
Define the term: Empathy.
Empathy: the ability to recognize, perceive, and understand the emotions of another.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: sessions involve teaching and confrontation - techniques include homework assignments and bibliotherapy.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Transactional Analysis.
Transaction Analysis: counselor acts as teacher - techniques include contracts for change, interrogation, confrontation, and illustration.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Behavioral (& Cognitive Behavioral) Therapy.
Behavioral (& Cognitive Behavioral) Therapy: counselor is the expert, teaching and directing - techniques include positive and negative reinforcement, environment planning, desensitization, implosion, flooding, and stress inoculation.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Reality Therapy.
Reality Therapy: after establishing a relationship with the client, the counselor acts as teacher and model - techniques promote responsibility, working in the present, and stress freedom without blame.
List advantages and goals of group counseling.
The goals of group counseling are for the clients to learn new behaviors in a social setting where they can experience peer confrontation and develop new skills in a non-threatening environment. The advantages of the group situation are the social setting and the dynamics of the group, the possibility for each client to experience a number of different roles, a perspective to clarify goals and values. The group situation also acts to dissipate counselor bias, allows the counselor to deal with more clients, and may reduce the per-client cost of the therapy.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis: exploration of the unconscious through such techniques as free association, and the analysis and interpretation of dreams.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Adlerian.
Adlerian: the counselor exhibits empathy and support - techniques include modeling and education with homework and goal-setting assignments.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Person-centered.
Person-centered: counselor exhibits acceptance and empathy - techniques include open-ended questions and active/passive listening.
Give the counseling techniques associated with the following style: Existential.
Existential: emphasis is on free will and personal responsibility for choices - techniques include the use of literature, modeling, and sharing of experiences - anxiety is used as a motivator.
Give a brief history and definition of group counseling.
Group counseling is a situation in which a counselor works with several people who are all concerned with the same or a related problem or behavior. Psychodrama, which can be considered a precursor to group therapy, dates back to at least the early 1600s. In the US group therapy started in the late 1800s and early 1900s in such organizations as Hull House as an effort to help immigrants adjust to life in their new country. In 1931 Jacob Mareno invented the term "group therapy" as a description for the role-playing in psychodrama. The growth of group therapy was encourage by the shortage of individual therapists following World War II. The first professional association for group therapists, The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama was formed in 1942 by Mareno, and in 1943 S.R. Slavson founded the American Group Psychotherapy Association. In December 2003 the Association for Specialists in Group Work was established as a division of the American Counseling Association.
Describe the classification of groups designed by Gerald Caplan.
Caplan divided counseling groups into 3 types - primary or guidance, secondary or counseling, and tertiary or therapy. Primary groups address living a healthy lifestyle and the reduction of problems. Secondary groups deal with problems that are not severe. Tertiary groups deal with problems that are long-standing, pathological and may require a personality change or rehabilitation. Participants in tertiary groups may also be involved in individual counseling.
Define the term: EMG.
EMG: (elctromyogram) - used in biofeedback training to measure muscle tension.
Define the term: EEG.
EEG (electroencephalogram) - used to measure brain waves.
Define the term: Temperature trainer.
Temperature trainer: a biofeedback-training thermometer - very expensive and extremely accurate.
Define the term: EKG.
EKG (electrocardiogram): an electrical recording that provides information about how the heart is beating.
Define the term: Aversive conditioning.
Aversive conditioning: the application of an unpleasant stimulus in an effort to reduce or eliminate an unwanted behavior.
Define the term: Systematic desensitization.
Systematic desensitization: a type of behavioral therapy to help overcome anxiety and phobias. The client is taught relaxation techniques, and then uses those techniques to react to and overcome situations in a hierarchy of fears.
Define the term: EDMR.
EDMR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing): an information processing therapy that uses an eight phase approach to reduce the emotional stress of a distressing event or memory.
Define the term: Umwelt, Mitwelt & Eigenwelt.
Umwelt, Mitwelt, & Eigenwelt: in Existential philosophy the three components of the conscious experience of being alive - Umwelt is biological, Mitwelt is social, and Eigenwelt is psychological.
Define the term: Parroting
Parroting: the counselor repeats what the client has said.
Define the term: Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing: the counselor rephrases what the client has said.
Define the term: Summarization.
Summarization: the counselor sums up or reviews what has happened in a session or in the course of therapy.
Define the term: Bibliotherapy.
Bibliotherapy: the use of books or other written material as part of therapy.
Define the term: Musterbations.
Musterbation: absolutist thinking by the client - the use of "musts, shoulds, and oughts"
Define the term: Awfulizations.
Awfulizations: looking at a situation or anticipating an event with irrational beliefs about how awful or difficult it is.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Glasser.
Glasser: Reality Therapy: People have physical needs such as food and shelter plus the need to feel worthwhile and be successful.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Adler.
Adler: Individual Psychology: People are essential good. Birth order determines much of a person's behavior.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Jung.
Jung: Analytic Psychology: People strive for self-fulfillment.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Skinner.
Skinner: Behavioral/Cognitive Behavioral Modification: Humans are machines that cannot make free-will decisions. Behavior is learned from a person's environment and the reinforcement he receives from others.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Frankl.
Frankl: Existential: People are good and rational, and have the freedom to choose their behavior.
For the following therapist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Williamson.
Williamson: Trait-factor: The potential for both good and bad is innate.
Define the term: Behavioral rehearsal.
Behavioral rehearsal: a role-playing strategy in which a client acts out a behavior he wants to change or acquire. Can be quite useful in assertiveness training.
Define the term: Fixed role therapy.
Fixed role therapy: a treatment method created by George Kelly in which the client is instructed to read a script at least three times a day, then act, speak and think like the script's character.
Define the term: Sensate focus.
Sensate focus: a series of exercises for a couple in which they take turns paying attention to their own senses.
Define the term: Implosive therapy.
Implosive therapy: a method for decreasing anxiety by exposing the client to an imaginary anxiety stimulus. The method is risky because overexposure can actually increase anxiety.
Define the term: Flooding therapy.
Flooding therapy: the exposure of the client to the actual anxiety stimulus in conjunction with response prevention. Care is necessary to insure that overexposure does not increase anxiety.
For the following theorist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Rogers.
Rogers: Person-Centered: People are essentially good and under the right conditions will move themselves toward self-actualization.
For the following theorist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Berne.
Berne: Transactional Analysis: Each person has the 3 ego states of parent, adult and child.
For the following theorist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Freud.
Freud: Psychoanalysis: Biological instincts and development through psychosexual stages control people.
For the following theorist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Ellis.
Ellis: Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: A person's instincts are both rational and irrational, but different reactions can be taught.
For the following theorist, list the theory associated with them and their view of human nature: Peris.
Peris: Gestalt: People are whole and complete but are affected by their environment. Learning and change result from how a person organizes experience.
Counselors can work as consultants. Give an overview of the tasks of a counselor as a consultant.
A consultant is an expert who can use his or her expertise, proven methods, and advice to help a business, an organization, or an individual solve a problem or improve a situation. The tasks of the consultant may include gathering information about the client and/or outside research and the analysis of the information, conferences, workshops, or seminars that address a client's interests and concerns, participant observation programs, organizational or project assessment, and making recommendations for change or improvement.
Describe play therapy.
Play therapy is intended to create an atmosphere where the child feels free to show emotions. It allows the child to express feelings and lessen tensions by releasing emotions such as disappointment, fear, anger, and confusion. The child can also act out dreams and ambitions. By observing the child at play, the counselor can assess his reaction to his environment and how he communicates, then analyze his conflicts and help him develop ways to deal with the emotions or let them go.
Define the following family therapy term: sculpting.
Sculpting: creates a picture or representation of family relationships. The representation is often made by the family members' physical placement of each other.
Define the following family therapy term: Homeostasis.
Homeostasis: a dynamic state of equilibrium - a balanced system.
Define the following family therapy term: Identified patient (IP)
(IP) - the member of a family who is the primary focus of treatment
Define the following family therapy term: Joining.
Joining: the strategy of the therapist entering a family system in order to explore and modify dysfunctions.
Define the following term: Nuclear family.
Nuclear family: the basic family unit of father, mother, and child(ren), living together in one household.
Define the family therapy term: Strategic.
Strategic: a therapeutic method in which the therapist devises strategies and interventions to resolve the problem.
Define the family therapy term: Structural.
Structural: a therapeutic method of realigning the family in order to change dysfunctional interactions.
Define the family therapy term: Triangulation.
Triangulation: when two members of a family have a problem with each other, one or both may turn to a third person.
Define the following term: introjection.
Introjection: the process by which a child adopts the values of another person.
Define the following term: projection.
Projection: attributing a person's own characteristic's to others.
Define the following term: displacement.
Displacement: a defense mechanism in which a person does not display anger at the time of the anger-inducing incident but displays it later and directs it toward a different person.
Define the following term: Sour grapes rationalization.
Sour Grapes Rationalization: a defense mechanism by which people rationalize that they did not really want something they did not get.
Define the following term: Sweet lemon rationalization.
Sweet lemon rationalization: a defense mechanism by which a person rationalizes a distasteful event into an acceptable one.
Define the following family therapy term: alignment.
Alignment: the alliances, either short or long-term formed among family members as they move toward homeostasis.
Define the following family therapy term: boundary.
Boundary: a limit or border. In family therapy the term refers to membership in the subsystems (parents, siblings, students, etc.) within the family and can be summed up as "who does what with whom".
Define the following family therapy term: Closed System.
Closed System: a system that is self-contained, has impermeable boundaries and does not interact with other systems.
Define the following family therapy term: Open System
Open System: a system with permeable boundaries that allow interaction with other systems.
Define the following family therapy term: Coalitions.
Coalitions: alliances, either short or long term, among family members against other family members.
Define the following family therapy term: Cybernetics.
Cybernetics: the study of the flow of information through feedback loops.
Define the following family therapy term: Enmeshment
Enmeshment: a family organization pattern in which family members are over-concerned and over-involved in each other's lives, thereby limiting each member's autonomy.
Define the following term: free association.
Free association: a therapy strategy in which the client responds with whatever comes to mind to clues given by the therapist.
Define the following term: transference.
Transference: the projection of a client's feelings for another onto the counselor.
Define the following term: catharsis
catharsis: the purging of emotions.
Define the following term: preconscious mind.
Preconscious mind: the portion of awareness that includes information of which a person is aware but to which he is not currently paying attention.
Define the following term: repression.
Repression: the involuntary forgetting of an incident in order to protect oneself from anxiety.
Define the following term: reaction formation.
Reaction Formation: a defense mechanism in which a person acts in the opposite manner from an impulse he or she cannot accept.
Define the following term: Sublimation.
Sublimation: a defense mechanism in which a person uses a socially acceptable behavior to act out an unconscious impulse.
Define the following term: mandalas.
Mandalas: drawings Carl Jung called protective circles representing self-unification that he used to analyze himself and clients.
Define the following term: eidetic imagery.
Eidetic imagery: the ability to recall minute details of something a person has observed.
Define the following term: TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
TAT (thematic apperception test): a projective test introduced by Henry Murray, in which a client tells stories about pictures the therapist show him or her.
Define the following term: Archetype.
Archetype: an ideal model of a person, thing, or concept - a sterotype or defining example.
Define the following term: Extinction.
Extinction: the withholding of reinforcement for a behavior as a means of eliminating the behavior.
Define the following term: Chaining.
Chaining: behaviors that occur because of a cue from an earlier behavior.
Explain Milan systemic family therapy.
To Milan therapy a family is a system of connections among the members. Acknowledging that the family "plays a game" in order to maintain the system, therapy often consists of family interactions while under observation by a team of therapists. The answers to circular questioning, in which each family member is asked the same relationship questions, reveal the connections among the members and the different ways they interpret an event. The therapist makes use of family patterns and rituals and makes suggestions for ways to alter beliefs and attitudes in an effort to change family rules and relationships.
Explain the beliefs of social constructionists.
Social constructionists subscribe to the idea that such widely accepted concepts as nationality, gender, religion, morality and language exist not as natural objects, but have been created by people. To them a social construct is an institutionalized entity or artifact that has been invented or constructed by members of a particular culture or society. Counselors using a social constructionist approach include those who make use of such methods as narrative, collaborative language systems, and solution-focused therapy. Practitioners pay little attention to the history or underlying causes of a problem but focus on solutions. Important names in the field include Steve deShazer and William O'Hanion.
Discuss psychoeducational family therapy.
Psychoeducation is a therapeutic technique that assists a family in dealing with their daily life and specific issues such as illness in the family. Life coping skills, medication management, stress and time management and self-care issues can be included. Marriage enrichment and stepfamily issues may also be addressed. Psychoeducation can be especially helpful for families dealing with mental illness of a family member, as well as for the patient who needs to understand what is happening, why certain medications are needed, the signs of relapse, etc. The process, in combination with medication, has been used successfully in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHA, and depression.
Explain the use of behavioral/cognitive therapeutic approaches in family therapy.
Behavioral/cognitive therapy can be divided into four types: behavioral martial therapy, behavioral parent skills training, functional family therapy and conjoint sex therapy. Behavior marital therapy, which has not been found to be long-term effective, is an effort to teach couples better communication skills and healthy handling of conflict. Cognitive-behavioral marital therapy adds a consideration of how specific thoughts relate to feelings and moods and how moods affect behavior. Behavioral parent-skills training is an effort to improve child management by educating both parents and child in the use of such techniques as timeouts and contingency contracts. To functional family therapy all behavior is adaptive and serves a function. Therapy involves intervention and prevention using everyday situations. Families discuss attainable goals without assigning blame. Conjoint sex therapy is the treatment of sexual dysfunctions through work with both partners in a couple. Some sessions may be with one individual, but others will involve the couple together.
Discuss narrative family therapy.
Narrative family therapy is a postmodern therapeutic approach that works through the tendency of human beings to create narratives or stories of their life experiences. Families bring theses narratives to the counseling sessions where the narratives are deconstructed to reveal their underlying assumptions other interpretations are suggested. The process allows the family to re-author the narrative, which empowers them. The therapist creates the structure for the new narrative. Narrative family therapy is appropriate for the entire family since it fits quite well with the development abilities of children.
Explain the role of gender-sensitive issues in family therapy.
Gender-sensitive issues are often feminist issues that affect both the females and the males in a family.They may grow out of the culture, especially in ethnic groups that regard females as being of little value or require that a woman be completely subject to the males in her family. Such issues also come from the long devaluing of the female's economic and political role in the United States. In therapy these issues must be considered in the contest of the social, cultural and political environment of the family. The therapist must be aware of these issues as they relate to himself or herself so that he or she does not demonstrate a prejudicial attitude in helping the family move beyond traditional sex roles.
Explain the influence of culture or ethnicity on families and the concept of alternative families.
Definitions of family vary depending on the cultural and ethnic groups concerned. The definitions may be quite narrow as in the a "nuclear family" which includes only father, mother, and their children, or it can rather broad as in the societies where the family is expected to be multigenerational and expanded. Child rearing practices very widely as do the transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to adulthood, which may involve traditional transitional rituals. Counselors must be aware of the client's cultural background and its influence on his or her development.

Alternative families in the US include any family that is not a nuclear family. Among them are single-parent families, consisting of one parent and one or more children; remarried families, which involve stepparents and may include children from several former marriages; childless couples, and gay and lesbian families which are single-sex relationships that may or may not include children. All the alternative family patterns include multigenerational dynamics and other problems that may beset a nuclear family.
Explain experiential and humanistic family counseling.
Experiential family therapy focuses on current experiences of the family and emphasizes experience rather than insight or cognitive knowledge as causes for change. Attention is on emotions and what they represent. The therapist's relationship with the client is important. A leading name in the field is Carl Whitaker. An important name in humanistic family counseling is Virginia Satir. Her view is that the counselor is a teacher and trainer, but that the self-concept of the person allows him or her to grow and develop. Believing that good communication within the family is necessary for the family to function in a healthy manner, she identified five styles of communication. They are placatar, blamer, super-reasonable, irrelevant, and congruent communicator. Congruent communicator is the healthiest style of communication.
Describe structural family therapy.
Salvador Minuchin is a leader in the use of structural family therapy. He considers a family to be an organization for which the rules are transactional patterns among the members and with subsystems (parents, siblings, students, etc.) with boundaries and rules of membership. Boundaries may be permeable or diffuse. Alignments are the way family members work together or against each other, power is who has authority or responsibility, and coalitions are alliances among specific family members. A structural family map diagrams the current family structure with boundaries, alliances, etc. and shows possible dysfunction. The therapy challenges the transaction patterns of the family with the goal of establishing clearer boundaries or better defining a subsystem. Mnuchim's role during the therapy session is an active one as he portrays aspects of the family and encourages the acting out of dysfunctional interactions. He also presents a constructive viewpoint.
Explain the psychodynamic theory of family counseling.
Nathan Ackerman used an interactive style of family therapy that considered the psychological heritage of each family member. He coined the term "homeodynamic principle" to express the concept that each family has a basic dynamic and that following an interruption such as counseling, the family will return to that dynamic even if it is dysfunctional. In a healthy family this results in structure and stability. During counseling Ackerman served as a catalyst to bring out defenses and neutralize imbalances. According to James Framo a person's social environment helps to shape their behavior and each member of a relationship brings any conflicts from his or her birth family to the current relationship. In therapy, Framo starts with the entire family, then moves to couple and couple group therapy and finishes with intergenerational conferences involving the family of origin.
Define the 8 theoretical concepts of the family systems theory.
To Murray Bowen the family is an emotional unit and multigenerational family history must be considered in family counseling. His 8 theoretical concepts are:
(1) Differentiation of self: the ability of a person to separate his own thinking and emotions from those of his family.
(2) Nuclear family emotional system: four basic relationship patterns govern where problems develop in a family. They are marital conflict, dysfunction in one spouse, impairment of one or more children, and emotional distance.
(3) Triangulation: when two people have a problem with each other, one or both of them will turn to a third person.
(4) Family projection process: the primary way parents transmit their emotional problems to a child.
(5) Multigenerational transmission process: small differences in differentiation levels between parent and child become marked differences after several generations in a multigenerational family.
(6) Emotional cutoff: family members reduce anxiety or stress with other family members by such mechanisms as moving away, diverting the conversation, or maintaining silence.
(7) Sibling position: birth order affects the characteristics of a person.
(8) Societal emotional process: Each concept in Bowen's theory can be applied to such non-family groups as coworkers and social organizations.
Explain strategic family therapy
The focus of strategic family therapy is on changing behavior rather than insight. It is a practical approach that deals with family communication, interaction, and behavior patterns. Creative interventions are an important part of the therapy. The therapy relies on strategies to change behavior and achieve goals and focus is on the immediate problem. Strategies can be designed to expose games within the family's interactions and reframe members' motives.

The three main models of strategic family therapy are the MRI (Mental Research Institute), Haley and Madanes, and Milan.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following theory: client-centered.
Client-Centered: encourages open dialog, eliminating cultural barriers, and respect for the values and differences of others is more effective when used with clients from cultures that do not rely heavily on an authority figure.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following theory: Existential.
Existential: helps clients search for meaning and purpose in their lives. Free will and personal responsibility for one's decisions are key elements. The theory is not the best choice for clients who are used to having personal choice.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following theory: Gestalt.
Gestalt: makes use of a range of techniques form which the counselor can choose the one that is the best fit for each client. Gestalt techniques that focus on nonverbal communications can be useful with clients from cultures that discourage the expression of emotions. It can also be helpful to address current situations rather than dealing with a client's past.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following therapy: cognitive behavioral.
Cognitive Behavioral: the emphasis is on thinking rather than feeling as beliefs and premises are examined, which makes it appropriate for persons from cultures that refrain from displaying emotion. The counselor must respect the client's culture and understand how solutions will harmonize with the client's cultural background and religious beliefs.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following therapy: Feminist Therapy
Feminist Therapy is concerned with the empowerment of women and the ways in which they can deal with societal and family issues. Feminism and multiculturalism are two good examples of the increasing attention to the role of the client's environment in problems and coping strategies. Again, it is important for the counselor to be aware of the client's background and any potential consequences of the client's changed behaviors. The counselor must help the client to find an acceptable solution.
Describe the differences between family and individual counseling theories.
Individual psychotherapy deals with the problems of a particular individual and may involve long-standing situations and require long-term treatment. Usually the counselor has only the information the client supplies about external influences since there is usually no contact with family members or others that may contribute to the situation. Family counseling places the focus on the family even when only one member is actually the client. The counseling may be extended to the client's social context rather than being restricted to the immediate family. It may involve sessions with individuals, but is intended to resolve family problems. The treatment is likely to be more short-term than individual therapy.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following theory: Psychoanalytic Therapy.
Psychoanalytic: counseling, which requires long-term treatment, may not be the best approach for clients who seek short-term, solution-orientated counseling, but may appeal to clients from cultures where the focus on family dynamics fits well.
From a multi-cultural perspective, describe the use of the following theory: Reality Therapy.
Reality Therapy: identifies problems and suggest solutions within the cultural environment of the client and works with current situations instead of the past. Both of these factors make it well suited for use with clients from many different cultures. However, unless the counselor understands the communication patterns, social and economic environment, and political realities of the different cultures, he or she may have difficulties in reaching the "real" issues with some clients.
Explain reciprocal determinism.
Reciprocal determinism: is Albert Bandura's term for the idea that each person is influenced by his or her environment and at the same time exerts influence on that environment. The idea expresses the dynamic, continuous process of the interaction between an individual and his or her home situation.
Explain linear causality.
Linear causality: expresses the idea that a particular thing cannot happen unless another particular thing happens first. This idea can also be express as "one thing leads to another."
Explain Circular causality.
Circular causality: was called "systems theory" by Ludwig von Bertalanffy and expresses the idea of many forces from different directions acting upon each other at the same time. The situation has no clear cause and the focus is on the process that is taking place.
Explain Relational causality.
Relational causality: is a cause and effect situation in which the effect is caused by the relationship rather than a single factor of the relationship being the cause.
Explain the life cycle of a family.
Culture and class influence the details of family development, however the most common pattern in the US consists of five stages. (1) Independence - Young adults leave home and establish themselves as emotionally and economically independent from their parents. (2) Coupling - The young adults form new long-term emotional relationships, in most cases a legal marriage. (3) Parenting - Children add to the family and create new dynamics along with new responsibilities. (4) Launching adult children - The children grow up and start cycles of their own. (5) Retirement or senior years - Generational roles shift as the parents age.
Give a brief explanation of the concept of the following theorist: Gordon Allport.
Allport emphasized the uniqueness of the individual. he defined personality as "the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought".
Give a brief explanation of the concept of the following theorist: Kurt Lewin.
Kurt Lewin is called the "father of social psychology." he studied group dynamics and organizational development. His work toward combating racial and religious prejudices laid the foundation for sensitivity training.
Give a brief explanation of the concept of the following theorist: Aaron Beck.
Aaron Beck: is known as the "father of cognitive therapy." He believed that people become depressed because they have unrealistic negative views of themselves, the world and their future.
Give a brief explanation of the concept of the following theorist: Joseph Wolpe.
Joseph Wolpe: believed that behavior therapy is as much an applied science as any other area of medicine. He developed the concept of desensitization and his work led to assertiveness training.
Give a brief explanation of the concept of the following theorist: Donald Meichenbaum.
Donald Meichenbaum: a proponent of the constructivist perspective, is one of the founders of cognitive-behavior therapy.
Explain the Johari Window.
Devised by Joe Luft and Harry Ingham, the Johari window is a useful model for describing human interaction. The window, divided into four panes, represents four different types of personal awareness: open, blind, hidden, and unknown. The open quadrant (the arena) is information known by the person and others. The blind quadrant (the blindspot) is information about himself that the person dos not know but that others do know. The hidden quadrant (the facade) is information the person knows about himself but that others do not know. The unknown quadrant (the unknown) is what the person does not know about himself and others also do not know. The window is used in self-help groups and in corporate settings. Group participants select adjective from a list of 55 to describe themselves and other group members. The selected adjectives are then mapped onto a "window" for each individual. The goal of the exercise is to improve self-awareness and mutual understanding.
Give an explanation of Neurolinguistic Programming.
Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP): a communication theory developed in 1970s that posits that mind, body and language interact to govern perception and behavior. Its use in therapy is somewhat controversial.
Give an explanation of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing.
(EMDR) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: a counseling technique in which eye movements are used to help the client access memories of distressing experiences. This technique can be used in the treatment of post-traumatic distress syndrome.
Give an explanation of Kinesics.
Kinesics: a type of non-verbal communication expressed by movement, including gestures and expressions.
Give an explanation of Proxemics.
Proxemics: how people use space and how differences can affect whether a person feels relaxed or nervous. Physical territory is a person's physical environment while personal territory is the space a person maintains between himself and others.
Give an explanation of paradigm shift.
Paradigm Shift: a change in viewpoint or way of thinking.