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138 Cards in this Set

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Four key elements in building a relationship are:
1) Human relations core
2) Social infuence core
3) skills core
4) theory core
Human relations core:
empathy, respect, and genuiness
Social influence core
competence, power, intimacy. Expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthieness were identified by Stanley Strong
skills core
Allen Ivey identified microskills- communication skill units such as attending, inquiry, and reflection
theory core:
these help one understand self and interpersonal relationships and skills.
Psychoanaylitic (Sigmund Freud)
identified a structure of personality
Id
unconscious motivation of energy- ruled by the pleasure principle
ego
is controlled by the reality principle
superego
is internalized ethics
Psychoanaylitic techniques
free association, interpretation of dreams, and other client material
transference
projections onto therapist must be worked through
countertransference
consists of projections of the therapist onto the patient
Karen Horney
security is each person's motivation and the person becomes anxious when it is not achieved. Irrational ways to mend disrupted human relationships may become neurotic needs
Erich Fromm
ind. must join w/others to develop self-fulfillment-social character-otherwise they may become lonely and nonproductive. Society offers opp. to exp. mutual love and respect
Harry Stack Sullivan
a social systems (interpersonal) approach can lead to understanding human behavior. Behavior is best understood in terms of social interactions, not as mechanistic and linear
Object Relations theory
based on pscyhoanalysis, interpersonal relationships as represented intrapsychically
Object to mean
Freud used the term to refer to a significant person or thing that is the object or target of one's feelings or drives
object relations
interpersonal relationships that shape and ind's current interactions with people, both in reality and in fantasy
four stages of development according to object relations theory
1)fusion with mother (3-4wks)
2) Symbiosis (3-8mo)
3) separation/individuation(4-5mo)
4)constancy of self and object(by 36th mo)
Margart Mahler
Psychological Birth of the Human Infant- object relations theroy
Rogers
client-centered
Client-centered/rogerian
focus was on the person's phenomenological world reflecting and clarifying their verbal and non-verbal communication
process of becoming
client-centered: moving clients to self-actualization
the core conditions of client-centered counseling are:
unconditional positive regard, genuinance (congruence), empathic understanding
Roger's book
Counseling and Psychotherapy
Client Centered Therapy
On becoming a person
Gestalt
Frederick 'Fritz' Perls
Gestalt theory
based on existential principles, here and now focus, and a holistic systems theroy viewpoint
Figure (gestalt theory)
the need is in the forefront
Ground (gestalt theory)
the need is in the background
gestalt
is when the need (figure) is met and a new need takes place
the goal for individual therapy in Gestalt
for ind. in therapy to become whole beings, to complete gestalts.
Gestalt key concepts
1) personal responsibility
2)unfinished business
3)awareness of the now
experiential therapy
encouraged the taking of responsibility by the client by using confrontation and encourages the client to stay with the feelings and to relive experiences and finish business
Gestalt techniques
role playing, two-chair technique, and dream work- interpretation is not done by the therapist but by the client
Fritz Perls wrote:
Gestalt Therapy Verbatim and in and out of the garbage can
Indivual psychology (Adlerian)
Alfred Adler and Rudolph Dreikurs, Don Dinkmeyer, Thomas Sweeny
Individual psychology theory
uniqueness of each indivudal is influenced by social factors. Each person has a sense of inferiority and strives for superiority
lifestyle/unified life plan
ind. psychology- gives meanings to our experiences which include habit, family, career, attitudes, etc.
Thechniques used by ind. psychologists are:
life histories, homework assignments and paradoxical intentions
Transactional analysis
Eric Berne
Carl Steiner
Thomas Harris
Graham Barnes
Stress Inoculation
practicing or reinforcing self-statements
Donald Meichenbaum
responsible for cognitive behavior modification and stree inoculation
Cognitive Behavior modification
a shift from self-defeating thoughts to coping ones
Robert Carkhuff
developed a 5-point scales to measure empathy, genuineness, concreteness and respect
Five Point Scale: Level 1
does not attend to or detracts significantly from the client's affect
Five Point Scale: Level 2
subtracts noticeably from the client's affect
Five Point Scale: Level3
interchangeable with the client's content and affect
Five Point Scale: Level 4
Adds noticeably to the client's affect
Five Point Scale: Level 5
Adds significantly to the client's affect and meaning
An immediate goal for many clients might be:
self-disclosure
Thematic Apperception Test
a pscyhoanalytic approach, projective technique in which stories told by a subject about each of a series of pictures are assumed to reveal dominant needs or motivations.
Alfred Adler
major concepts: birth order and family constellations
Oldest child:
gets much attention; tends to be dependable;hard-working;achievement oriented; when another child comes oldest may fear losing love
second child
share attention;sees self as if in a race to compete iwth first child; often succeeds where older fails
middle child
often feels left out, may see life as unfair "poor me attitude; may develop problems
youngest child
baby in the family; pampered; special role to play;influenced by all others; tends to go own way, often develops in directions no one else thought of
only child
does not learn to share or cooperate; often deals with adults well; wants center stage even as adult and if does not get it, may have difficulties
Johari Window
developed by Joe Luft and Harry Ingham. The clients brings material in which some is known and other information is not
Johari Window principles
1)a change in one quandrant affects all others
2) it takes energy to hide, deny, or be blind to behavior
3)threat increases awareness; mutual trust tends to increase awareness
4)the smaller the first quadrant (upper left) the poorer the communication
5) there is univeral curiousity about the unknown area but customs, social training, and fears keep parts unknown
6) the goal of counseling is to minimize the lower right quadrant and maximize the upper left
statement of disclosure
counselors are expected to share with clients at the initial session information about counseling goals, counselor qualifications, and counseling limitations
Trait-factor theoretical orientation
are apt to use tests and inventories
experiential family therapy: time frame
present, here-and-now data from immediate, ongoing interactions
integrative counseling
goes beyond eclectic, it implies the creation of a model that the counselor develops a personal theory based on values, worldview, education, and experience. The counselor fleshes out this integrative counseling theory to include processes and techniques from other theoretical perspectives.
two theoretical approaches showing the most effectiveness with clients are:
behavioral/cognitive and rational emotive
Arnold Lazarus
holistic/eclectic approach with strong behavior ties, multimodal therapy with seven interactive yet discrete modalities summarized by the acronym BASIC ID
BASIC ID
B- behaviors (acts, habits, reactions
A-affective responses (emotions and moods)
S-Sensations
I- Images (how we see selves, dreams, memories
C-Cognitions (insights, philosopies, ideas)
I- interpersonal relationships
D- drugs, biology including nutrition
Feminine therapy this is not essential:
therapist maintains the expert role
Implosive therapy
behaviorally based intervention induces anxiety around the problem by presenting vivid images or cues(flooding). The anxiety is expected to diminsh (extinguish) with repeated exposure and in the absence of
any threat
Behavioral/Cognitive behavioral
human beh. is learned, old behaviors can be extinguished and new behaviors established, respondent learning, operant conditioning, and social modeling are the three primary ways of learning
Empathic understanding
the ability to experience the client's subjective world including feelings and cognitions
congruence
also called genuineness, this characteristic implies that hte ocunselor is authentic and integrated in teh counseling session. Congruence can also mean an agreement between a client's behavior and his values and belief
unconditional positive regard
also called acceptance, this characteristic implies the counselor is caring without condition and is neither evaluative nor judgmental
concreteness
this is the extent to which the client and the couselor deal with issues in specific terms rather in vague generalities
immediacy
this is dealing iwth what is going on in the counsling process at the present time
interpretation
this is a therpeutic technique used to uncover and suggest meanings and relationships often underlying the apparent expression
self-disclosure
appropriate self-disclosure means that the counselor shares personal affect and experiences relative to the client's issues
attending
this refers to several behaviors including listening, engaging in eye contact and being psychologically present
restatment
repeating what the client has stated with emphasis on the cognitive message
reflection
repeating what the client has stated with emphasis on the affective or feeling portion of the message
paraphrasing
restating the message of the client to show or to gain understanding
summarizing
this is a process whereby the counselor or client brings together several ideas or feelings usually following a lengthy interchange
silence
silence may have many meanings such as quietly thinking, boredom, hostility, waiting for the counselor to lead, preparing the next thrust, or emotional integration
confrontation
confrontation occurs whent he counselor identifieds and presents discrepancies between a client's verbal and nonverbal behaviors or between counselors and clients perceptions
structuring
refers to defining the nature, limits,and goals of the counseling process
Carl Jung
collective unconscious is determined by the evolutionary development of the human species and it contains brain patterns for the most intense emotional responses that humand experience- he also introtuced the concepts of introversion and extraversion and the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator is based on Jung's theory
archetype
is a response pattern occurring universally in the human experience and is characterized by an emotional charge to the existential issues of identity, meaning, and purpose
anima
female trait-archetype
animus
male trait- archetype
goals of jungian therapy
transformation of self including gaining knowledge of self; recognition and integration of self
Gordon Alport
personalities exist within systems, any system of interaction including culture, situational context and field theory
Kurt Lewin
field theorist, behavior is a function of life space which is a function of the person and the environment. He also challenged the linear and mechanistic view of behavior
Aaron Beck
Identified automatic thoughts-similar to the preconscious- internal communication system
Joseph Wolpe
theory of reciprocal inhibition
reciprocal inhibition
Wolpe, the underlying principle is that people cannot be both anxious and relaxed
systematic desensitization
based on reciprocal inhibition (Wolpe), counterconditioning by reducing anxiety by associating negative stimuli with positive events (neg. images paired with muscle relaxation)
Token Economy
use of tokens as a reinforcement in a behavioral treatment, privileges and goods can be purchased with the tokens
paradoxical intention
clients are urged to "intend" that which they fear or wish to change.
Thought stopping
behavioral intervention is designed to inhibit recurring thought by consciouslyh stopping it whenever it occurs
consultation
Bergan-behavioral model
Bandura- social learning
Schien- purchase model
Caplan- mental health consultation model
Splete- 9 stage process of consultation
A basic premise for individual psychology is
problems come from self-defeating behaviors
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
* Assess the interaction of Axis I and Axis II disorders based on the DSM-IV classification system
* Identify the deeper and pervasive personality characteristics underlying a patient's overt symptoms
* Gain an integrated understanding of the relationship between personality characteristics and clinical syndromes to facilitate treatment decisions
-for adults, developed by Theodore Millon
Kottler
Boredome may cause either reckless judgment in counseling sessions or treatment planning, or cause burnout
Awareness of the psychological type of an individual, whether it is quiet and introverted or sociable and outgoing, would be a factor in
psychodynamic theory
The ABC's of REBT were developed by
Ellis
Jungian analysis portrays personality development as most defining in
middle adulthood.
first step in couples therapy using behavioral therapy is to:
identify the problem behaviors and the desired changes
Rogers believes that the most essential attribute of a therapist is
congruence
The Skinner box is based on the learning principles of
operant conditioning
The eclectic counseling viewpoint has been promoted mainly by
Frederick Thorne.
One of these counselors in particular appears to be "seeing himself" in certain group members and is therefore over-empathizing with them. He is doing this to the point that he is losing effectiveness in his work with his clients. This counselor, according to Freudian terminology, is experiencing
countertransfernece
Redecision therapy works to help clients recognize how listening to parental injunctions alters the course of their lives. Knowing this, which of the following interventions seems most appropriate?
Do you suffer from self-doubt, telling yourself that your voice doesn’t matter?
Assuming that counseling theories can be arranged on a continuum based on their varied principles, choose the set which is arranged on a continuum of viewpoints on the therapeutic relationship, from therapist-as-teacher to a relationship between equals.
REBT, Reality Therapy, Existential Therapy
The term deprivation, when used in operant conditioning, means
without reinforcement
The law of effect, a creation by E.L Thorndike, states that a response will strengthen or weaken depending on the consequences that follow the response. The law of effect is sometimes referred to as the
principle of reinforcement.
Consultation
vuluntary, problem-sovling, work related, consultation may be client, consultant, consultee, or system focused, preventative function,
The goal of consultation
is not just to resolve the issues that cause human problems but t o increase competence so future problems may be avoided
content oriented family therapy
transfer of knowledge or information from the consultant to the consultee
Process oriented family therapy
looking at the process-may use communication theory, attribution, change or motivation theory
Models of consultation are:
Bergan, Bandura, Schein, Caplan
Bergan model of consultation is:
behavioral model with four stages: problem, identification, problem analysis, plan implementation, and problem evaluation
Bergan model of consulation focuses partially on:
problem behaviors and their entecedents and consequences
Bergan's model emphasizes:
verbal interaction in consultation
Bandura model of consultation:
is a dynamic interplay of behaviors, congitions, and the environment and all three are assessed in problem identification
Bandura's solutions revloved around:
modeling, rehearsing, and changing cognition
Schein's model of consultation:
indentified the purchase model with involves buying the consultant expert's knowledge or service
Schein's model includes a"
doctor-patient model stresses diagnosis and problem identification
Caplan's model of consultaiton
is a mental health consultation model. Consultation occurs between two profesionals and can be centered on the client, the consultee and client, the program, or the consultee and administration.
Splete created this model of consultation?
nine-stage process of consultation: precontract, contract and exploration of relationship, contracting, problem identification, problem anazlysis, feedback and planning, implementation of the plan, evaluation of the plan, conclustion and termination of the relationship
neurolinguistic programming
original proponents are Richard Bandler and John Grinder
Eye Movement Desensitation and Reprocessing ( EMDR)
is an experimental counseling technique used to facilitate the clients accessing of memories of painful and traumatic experiences and reprocessing these experiences through eye movements similar to those found in REM sleep cycles
Alcohol and substance abuse counseling
number one problem in the US
teenage drinking is associated with:
suicide, early sexual activity, and automobile accidents
personality traits often found in alcoholics and drug users include:
low self-concept, anxiety, feeling of social isolation, sexual dysfunction, dependence, fear of failure, and suicidal impulses
SASSI
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory are useful in measuring signs of addiction
Kinesics
refers to nonlinguistic communication which occurs through body movements such as gestures and facial expressions
proxemics
refers to the spatical features of the environment such as positioning of furniture, seating arrangements, etc. How we arrange space will have an impact on behavior
Kinesics and proxemics believes that
each of us has a personal space
Client-centered-multicultural theory
encourages open dialogue and breaking down of cultural barriers. There is respect for others' values and differences