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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
HOW IS HIV TRANSMITTED?
INJECTION OF BLOOD/BLOOD PRODUCTS
INTIMATE SEXUAL CONTACT
PERINATALLY FROM INFECTED MOTHER TO UNBORN CHILD
POSITIVE SEROLOGICAL TEST(SEROCONVERSION) TIME?
3-6 MONTHS AFTER INITIAL INFECTION
HIV ATTACKS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND DIMINISHES WHAT?
THE CD4 COUNT
NORMAL CD4 COUNT IS WHAT?
800-1000
PT IS ASYMPTOMATIC UNTIL COUNT REACHES
500-1000
WHEN DO INFECTIONS BECOME MORE FREQUENT
WHEN COUNT FALLS TO 300-500
AIDS DEVELOP AND SEVERE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION OCCUR WHEN THE CD4 IS BELOW
200
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV
PERSISTENT COUGH, PCP, TB, CMV, HISTOPLASMA, KAPOSI'S SARCOMA, WEIGHT LOASS, ANOREXIA, ORAL LESIONS, LOSS OF BALANCE, AND HODGKINS LYMPHOMA
TX INCLUDES
ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
KIND OF ANTIVIRALS
AZT, DDI, AND DDC
HOW DO ANTIVIRAL THERAPIES WORK
INHIBITING AND DECREASING VIRAL REPLICATION
OTHER MEASURES
PREVENT INFECTION THROUGH STRICT ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE AND OBSERVE STRICT UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
A MEMBER OF THE HERPES FAMILY THAT IS COMMON AND WIDESPREAD, AFFECTING CHILDREN AND ADULTS
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
HOW IS IT SPREAD
CONTACT WITH BODY SECRETIONS, MUCOUS MEMBRANES AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY
WHO ARE MOST AT RISK
CHILDREN AND DAYCARE WORKERS
HOW IS THE VIRUS SHED
URINE, SALIVA, AND OTHER SECRETIONS
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT INCLUDES
CONTROL OF SYMPTOMS SUCH AS SORE THROAT AND FEVER. ANTIVIRALS MAY BE USED
YOU SHOULD ADVISE PATIENTS TO AVOID SPORTS AND HEAVY LIFTING TO AVOID
SPLEEN INJURY IF SPENOMEGALY IS PRESENT
HOW IS HEPATITIS B SPREAD
THROUGH BLOOD BREAKS IN THE SKIN INTEGRITY AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE, AND BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS
MAIN CAUSE OF
CIRRHOSIS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA
INPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION RESULTS IN
COAGULOPATHY AND ENCEPHALOPATHY
LABS
ELEVATED SGOT AND SGPT
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
SUPPORTIVE, ANTIEMETIC, ANALGESIC, VITAMIN K AND IV THERAPY TO REPLACE FLUID AND ELECTROLYES
DIET
FREQUENT FEEDING OF HIGH CALORIE, LOW FAT, MODERATE PROTEIN FOODS, INCREASED FLUID INTAKE TO 3000 ML/DAY
WHAT PREVENTS THE SPREAD OF PATHOGENS TO OTHERS
HAND WASHING
TEACH TO
ABSTAIN FROM SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND SHARING PERSONAL ITEMS UNTIL SERUM LIVER STUDIES ARE WNL
HOW IS HERPES SIMPLEX TRANSMITTED
PERSON TO PERSON CONTACT WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE SECRETIONS
HSV1 INFECTS
FACE, OCULAR. ORAL
HSV2 INFECTS
GENITAL
PRIMARY INFECTION SX
ASYMPTOMATIC OR COLD SORES OR GENITAL LESIONS
USUALLY ABSENT OF SYMPTOMS BUT THE VIRUS PROGRESSES TO SENSORY NERVE CELLS AND CAN REACTIVATE DURING PSYCHOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL STRESSORS
LATENCY
SYMPTOMS OF REACTIVATION
ASYMPTOMATIC OR SIMILAR SYMPTOMS AS PRIMARY STAGE WITH LESS SEVERITY AND DURATION
TEACH TO
AVOID KISSING, SHARING FOOD, DRINK UTENSILS, AND SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING PERIODS OF OUTBREAK
WHO DISPLAYS FEWER SYMPTOMS WITH STDS
WOMEN
COMPLICATIONS
STERILITY AND NEOPLASM
INPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION RESULTS IN
COAGULOPATHY AND ENCEPHALOPATHY
LABS
ELEVATED SGOT AND SGPT
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
SUPPORTIVE, ANTIEMETIC, ANALGESIC, VITAMIN K AND IV THERAPY TO REPLACE FLUID AND ELECTROLYES
DIET
FREQUENT FEEDING OF HIGH CALORIE, LOW FAT, MODERATE PROTEIN FOODS, INCREASED FLUID INTAKE TO 3000 ML/DAY
WHAT PREVENTS THE SPREAD OF PATHOGENS TO OTHERS
HAND WASHING
TEACH TO
ABSTAIN FROM SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND SHARING PERSONAL ITEMS UNTIL SERUM LIVER STUDIES ARE WNL
SPIROCHETE TREPONEMA PALLIDUM
SYPHILIS
HOW IS IT AQUIRED
SEXUAL CONTACT OR CONGENITAL
HIGHEST INCIDENCE AMONG
DRUG USERS AND HIV INFECTED
PRIMARY INFECTION SX
PAINLESS CHANCRE
SECONDARY INFECTION SX
GENERALIZED INFECTION WITH RASH OF THE PALMS AND SOLES OF FEET, HA, ANOREXIA, PARESIS, STROKE, MENINGITIS
WHAT TEST IDENTIFIES SYPHILIS
VDRL
RETEST AT
3, 6, 12, AND 24 MONTHS
ANTIBIOTIC TX
PENICILLIN AND VIBRAMYCIN
ALSO KNOWN AS
NEISSERIA GONORRHEA
ANTIBIOTIC
ROCEPHIN AND VIBRAMYCIN
BACTERIUM THAT REPLICATES LIKE A VIRUS, AND IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
CHLAMYDIA
SX
CHRONIC PAIN, ECTOPIC PREGNANCY, POSTPARTUM ENDOMETRITIS, AND INFERTILITY
WHAT IDENTIFIES CHLAMYDIA
CELL CULTURE AND IMMUNOLOGIC ASSAYS
TX
ZITHROMAX OR VIBRAMYCIN
CAUSES VENERAL WART
HPV
INCREASES RISK FOR
CERVICAL NEOPLASMS
SX
PAINLESS GROWTHS OF VULVA, CERVIC, OR ANAL AREA
TX
LESIONS ARE EXCISED OR REMOVED WITH CRYOTHERAPY, ELECTROCAUTERY, OR LASER TX
MOST FREQUENTLY CAUSED BY N GONORRHEA AND CHLAMYDIA
PID
INCREASED INCIDENCE WITH
MULTIPLE SEX PARTNERS, IUD USE AND THERAPEUTIC ABORTION AND C SECTION
SX
PELVIC PAIN, FEVER, CERVICAL DISCHARGE/TENDERNESS, AND IRREGULAR BLEEDING
TX
ABT/SURGICAL INTERVENTION FOR ABSCESS WHEN NECESSARY
COMFORT MEASURES
ANALGESICS, HEATING PAD TO LOWER ABDOMEN OR BACK. POSITION FOR PELVIC DEPENDENCE TO PROMOTE INFECTION DRAINAGE
CAUSED BY EPSTIEN BARR VIRUS
MONONUCLEOSIS
TRANSMITTED BY
ORAL CONTACT WITH PHARYNGEAL SECRETIONS
AFTER INCUBATION OF 4-6 WEEKS SX INCLUDE
FEVER, LYMPHADENOPATHY, PHARYNGITIS THAT LASTS FOR 2 WEEKS
POSITIVE EPSTEIN BARR TITER IS
>1:29
TX
SUPPORTIVE, ENCOURAGE BEDREST AND REFRAIN FROM STRENUOUS ACTIVITY D/T ENLARGED SPLEEN
TRANSMITTED BY EXPELLING MYCOBACTERIUM TB WHILE TALKING, COUGHING, SNEEZING
TUBERCULOSIS
COMPLICATIONS
PNUMONIA AND PLEURAL EFFUSION
INFECTION OCCURS 2-10 WEEKS AFTER EXPOSURE WITH
FATIGUE, ANOREXIA, LOW GRADE FEVER, NIGHT SWEATS, HEMOPTYSIS, PLEURITIC PAIN, AND FORMATION OF LESIONS IN ANY ORGAN
DETECT M TB INFECTION BY POSITIVE WHEAL 48-72 HOURS AFTER TEST
PPD OR MANTOUX TEST
TX
INH, RIF
TX WILL LAST
6-12 MONTHS
PT IS NONINFECTIOUS AFTER
2-3 WEEKS OF CONTINUOUS THERAPY
SX OF RUBEOLA
KOPLIKS SPOTS ON BUCCAL MUCOSA AND MACUPAPULAR RASH AT HAIRLINE THAT SPREAD TO FEET IN 1 DAY
TX
ANTIPYRETICS, REST AND ANALGESICS, FLUID INTAKE AND DARK ROOM FOR PHOTOPHOBIA
COMMONLY MANIFESTED AS ACUTE PHARYNGITIS
STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
IF A RASH IS PRESENT MAY BE
SCARLET FEVER
MAY LEAD TO
GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
SX
THROAT PAIN W/ SWALLOWING, FEVER ABOVE 101, MALAISE
MAY CAUSE PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA SX
TACHYCARDIA, COUGH W/ RUST COLORED SPUTUM, PLEURITIC CHEST PAIN, HERPES LIKE LESIONS ON FACE AND LIPS
TX
PCN ORAL OR IM, ANTIPYRETICS, AVOID MILK AND HOT FLUIDS
BACTERIUM TRANSMITTED BY DIRECT CONTACT OF DROPLETS OF NOSE OR THROAT
CAUSES EPIGLOTTITIS, AND PNEUMONIA
SX OF MININGITIS INCLUDE
NUCHAL RIGIDITY, POSITIVE KERNIGS SIGN, AND POSISTIVE BURDZINSKIS SIGN
TX
ANTIBIOTICS, STEROIDS, AND OSMOTIC DIURETICS IF CEREBRAL EDEMA PRESENT. O2 IF PNEUMONIA PRESENT
ZOSTER VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR
HERPES ZOSTER HINGLES AND CHICKENPOX
SX
MALAISE, LOW GRADE FEVER FOLLOWED BY RASH STARTS AS MACULES TO PAPULES TO VESICLES TO CRUST FORMATION
RASH STARTS
ON HEAD AND SPREADS TO TRUNK AND EXTREMITIES
SX OF HERPES ZOSTER
SKIN ERUPTIONS IN NERVE BANDLIKE CONFIGURATIONS. DO NOT CUASE SCARRING
TX
ANTIVIRAL DRUGS LIKE ACYCLOVIR AND CORTICOSTEROIDS, ANTIPYRETICS(AVOID ASA), ORAL ANTIHISTAMINES
HELPS WITH PRURITIS
BAKING SODA AND OATMEAL