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50 Cards in this Set

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How do yo udefien public health in gerneal terms?
public health involves issues of physical, mental and social well -bieng and longeviyt
As a discipliken how would you charterize the ocmopentns of publeic health/
public health is the art and science of : prevfnetin disease, pronging life, and promoitng health and effiencty htrough oerganized coommunity effor for sanitation, communicable diease, hygien, early dignosis and prevetnive treatment, maintenance of healht
What is the purpose of pulbic health sevices?
toperevent idease to promote helath nd tomeasur eand evaluate the health stus of poualtions
How do yo defien communtiy healht
that section of public health which deasl with tissue sof preventive medicne and epidemilogy as they relate to gerops of peole rath than indiviuals
How doe yo udefien epeidmiology
epidemiology is the scien of htse study fo healt nad ideise in a po;ulatio. It looks fo rhte ditribution and determinat of ehat nd idease in gorup sof poeole and itask gorou quesiotn who, ehre, hjen and how
How doyo you define biostatiscs
biostatiscis is thestudy fo the metods and procerfue sfor colectin gsummarizind and nanylyuzind ata aobut health and isease and for makeing scientifei inferences from such data
how doy ou defiene podiatic publeic hasdlth
who cares
How do yo udiffentiate between primary, secondary and terita pervention
primary: effotr to vpefent diease befoer it occurs
secondary screening to tret before symptoms
tertiary: stop symptoms form getting wrose
Who porovides the majority of public health services inthe united states
the feral government proved the
how are public health serviceds for state governmetn deliverd?
each stae does its way.

normally incleud
commuicable diesase control
vital staistics
enviromental santiati
maternal and child health
publci hedalth lab sevice
public health nursing
healt education
local healt serveisce
mental
hindustrial
admin
What were the most common casue of death at the begninnin f the20th centru and how does that compar to dtoday
Befofe: commuic disease: TZB, pmemonia, infuenza, smallpox, typhus and tyopoid

\todya: heart diesase, cancder stroke, accidents
What are thre three compoents of all disease
host
agent
environmental compoents
What are the determinatds of idisese
Inhereitied diesease
enviornemtnal effects
infectious process
nutritional dieficiency
metaboic
allergic
ageing and degenerative process
accidental injuireis
cncer and neoplasms
how are the risk categoreis for heath care workder sdefind
category 1 - frequent direct contact with blood and body fluid -- me nurse etc
2 - infrequent : x ray tech EKG
2 seldom - receptionist
What are the universal infection control porocedures
hand wasing
barriers - glove,gowns sleeves, aprons msks, gogles face shield
needles and sharps disposed properly, don ot reca
fluid spill, chimeicla germicides hospital disisnfectans
sepciem in sealded containter
instrument sterilized properl, need autoclave of rinstrumets whic invade itssue or vasuclar system
What are the agenices involvied in healdth issues and theri respective percent of the feral health care budget?
Departmetn of health and human services - 755
vet admin - 10%
departmetn of defense - 7%
Other - 1.5%
Whic is the laregest vovemnental agency involved in health care when was it formsd
deparment of healht and human services
1979
What are the major components of DHHS?
office of human development
public health service
health care financing admistration
seocialsecurity adminsitraiton
What are thetow princiap HEALTH agencies of DHHS
heat car fincinace iadminstation (HCFA)
Untied states public health service
How does the health care financing admisntration (HCFA) function
prmary funciton is to run the government's tow major treantmen services - mediacre and meicaied
What major health programs were provided for in the 19654 amendemtn to the social secruity act?
establised mediare int hitile 18 and medicaid int title 19
What di the 1967 amendments to th social security act provide for with respect to podiatric medicne?
dded podiatrist ot ht list oof physicdians added podiatric care as a covered service but excled services including orhtotics and tretmetn for subluxand and "routine foot care" whic it dfined as corns, calluses and nais etc.
what ar the bendifits provide for inmeidcare tile 18
provides health cra for the elderly, blind and idabled
Part A 9involuntary)
inpatint sevices $520 deductible
extned car services
home health services
outpaitne dignostic serices
Part B
(voluntary with motnhly premium)
doctos fees, $100.00 decductbile pays 80% of apoved costs. Addition 20% form patient
What are the bnefits provide in medicad: title 19
provides medial care for indigent populations, fudned by the ferdal and state govenmetn, arizona does not provide a medicaid orgram for its residents. programs include aid to the age aid to familes of dend children aid to th eblid and tho thdiabled. It is called meidcal in california
What are the major compnents of the public health service
alcohol drug abuse nad metnal health admistiration
Centrers for disease control and preventi

Foo dnad drug admistrainon
Halth resources and service adminstration
Nation instuties of health
offic of the asssitan secrataryu of health - ncludes smoking and center for health statsitic
What ar eth comopn ets of the health resources and services adminstration (HRSA)
Bureau of health professions - providces nsational leadership in coordinatin evalusatin and suporing the devlopment and utilizationf thenation's health personnesl.
Indian hela tsevice
bureuar of of resources and devleoment
buroeau of pro
How does the deparmetn of veterans health affairs provide public heatlth?
provides hospital nrusing hom outpatint medial and denta care ot veterans
What are the benefits provided ot america's veterans by the va
disability compensation and pensin

education
loan guarnty
life insurance
medical care
What is the difference betwene a professional standards review organization (PSRO) and a professional review organization (PRO) HOw does a PRO functon?
Professional stndards review organization were established in 1972 to reivew:
hospital standards
length of stay review
medical care studies
reccomend denials for payment

Professional review organizations came about when a 1982 repealed PSRO and establised PRO to:
determine medical necessity
quality of care
approiateness of care
Died ot DRG's
What are the most common types of clincial studies
prosepctive; follows a pgorup of paitnet forward int time to determin and issue of diseaswe
retropective : begins at hte present time and looks backward to identy data of intrest
descriptive: provides a specific snapshot ofvarious demographic and clinical data in as sample poluation.
observational:P clincial studies whre the investigator isunable ot manipulat the primary variables. Observations are mde form obsrvionfo realtiy
Intervential : experiments hre the investigator is able to manibulate th varibles to test a specific hypothes
clinical trials: prospective and intgervntinal
case controlled stuies: retrospective and observational
cohort studies: may be retrospective or porospecitve, descriptive, observational or interventinal
Prevalence rate
(all cases of a given diease a t agiven time / estimated population) * 1000
Incidnce
(new cases of disese per uittime/estimated population) * 10
False positive
(persons withou the idesaes positive to test/total no-dieases) *100
False Negative
(perosns with diease negative to etest/total disease) * 100
sensitivieyt : true positive
(number of positives ithj dieseae/toatl ewiht dieseae preent) * 100
Specificity: true negative
(number of negatie without dieseae/ number who do not hav ediseae) * 100
What are the measeure sof cental tendincy and hwo are the yuseud to evaluat infomration
means
median
mode
What are the measures of variabiity and how are theu used to eavluat information?
RAnge - the largest number of value minus the smalles number
stnadard diviation - most frequently used measure of variabilty in a nomra cure
2 stanrds fo deviations - central range in whci 95.45% of the meausrements lie
3 standrds of divaiotn = a central rangen in whic h99% of methe measuremnt lied
What does the term statsitca signeimcance mean
a resutl whic annot be explaiend by chance
What is anull hypothes?
negative reasoning that treatmetn A is no differn t than treament B . If accepted in the study , the ntrhe is isnuffient evidence to preove otherwise
What is the chi squeare dtest?
demonstrates whete or not htre is an asociatin beween a facor or attibue and an outocme
Is podiatry a primary or secondary consultan to the core geriatric team
primary consultant
What are the signs and sympotms of proressive dementia syndormes (alszheimer's disease)
Early in the diease process poroblems of memory, particulary recnet or shot term memor, mild personality chnages, tendncy to widraw from social nteraction my be evidnet.
later itn h disease problems in abstrct htinking or in intellectual function develop.
Futher disturbances in h behavir oand appearnce may be sen , such as agitation irritabilty quarrelsomeness nd dimdishing ability to dress appropriately. Patietn may papear to be confues or disorient aobut hte month or year patitn may begin to wansdder, be unable to engage in coversation seem inattentive and erraic inmood, appear ucooperative, and lose bladdr and bowel control By the end of hte diease the paients will be incapable of caring fro themeslves
ow are preessive demntia syndroms diagnoese
clnical presentaiton of deminta sgnificant loss of intellectual abilities; insidous onset of symotm subtly progessiv eand irreversible course with documented deteriortation over time; and exclusion of all other specifiec caseu of edementia by history, phyisica examination., loab test etc.

no specific clincial test
What are some examples of reversible forms of dementia?
reversible demntia syndormoes incle (side effects of medication substance abuse, metabolic diordrs, circualtory disorder, neurologica disorder, infeciotns, taruma, otxins, tumors)
what are the signs and sympoms of reversible forms of dementia
forgetfulness in the absence of depression andinattentiveness a, significant cognitive impairment, and change sin emotional behavior or perosnality.
How are reversible forms of emnia dignose
based on hisory and onthe tphysical and mental staus examination -supplemented by carefreviw of hte paiente' medicton list and alcohol intake - nd by laboratory investigationsot exclude other casue of cognitive impariment
What are some exmaples ointerventin stretegies for reversbile forms of demtnisa?
seacrh anc correct the tratable factor influencing the onset of the demntia
docontinue nonessentia medications,
terat coexisting medical nad psychiatric problems
family asissince incealng with the condinto
What are normal age lreated changes?
IN gneral elderly pateints experience an increae in body fat with decrease intoal body water.
eyes and ears: prebyopia, lensopcification, and decreae nhigh frequency acuity
endocrine: impaired glucose, decreased lungelasticity and increased chest w all stiffenes
cardivscualr : inscreaes systoic blood pressure and decreased aerterial compliance;
GI decreased gastric acdidty, decreased colonic motiltyu, decreased anorectal fucntin and decreased hedaptic function
heamtological nad immune system related changes: decreaed t-cel function increaed autoantibodes
renal: decreased GFR and decreased urin
gnetourinary related changes: vagina and urethral mucosal atrophy and prostate enalrgemtn:
musculoskeltal related chagnes: decreaed lean bod mss and decreased bond density:

nervous system relaed changes: brain atrophy, decreased stage 4 sleep and decrease brani catecho and domamiergic sysntehs
What ar soe abnormal chage related chagnes
Thsoe changes casued by disease nto by age:
obesity, anoerxia, blindess, deafness,DM, thyuoeid dysfunciotn, impotence, oseoporosis, ostoemalcia, dyspmena, hypoxia, syncompe, heart failure, hart block, cirrhosis, fecal impaciton ,feal inciontis, anemia, automiune di9eses, sympotomatic UTI, urinary incontience, urinary retiention, hip fracture, demntia, dperession, parkinson's disease, spleep annea and falls