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40 Cards in this Set

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What are some characgteristic changes i ngait between the walking and running gait?
Changes in running gait
* Narrowing base of gait
* decreasing angle of gait
* lowered center of gravity
* increased varus position of hte heel at heel contact
* increased prportion of airborn (seing) time to stanc e(ground contact) time
* changes in landing (contact pattersn as speed increase
increased prportion of time in proulsion vs time spent on rearfoot
increase in ground reactive forces
increased importqance of swing pahse to maintain momentum
change in stride lenght
How can a runner increase their speed?
Increase the cadence (strides per minute) or increase the stride lenght.
What constitutes the beginning o "push of" or follow through" phase
toe off occurs
How woudl tight hip flexors reduce "push off" efficiency
Tight heip flexor would limithip extension/hyperextension, which would decrease the push off angle, thereby reducing push off efficiency and speed.
Describe 2 factors which would decreased the effectiveness of the fhe "float" or "double float" pahse in rununngers.
Weak hamstrings/hip extensors with decreased retrograde force against he ground, thereby reducing float
Weak plantarflexors which would decrease the push off force.
Weak quad/hip flexors whic hwould decrease the force of the legmoving forward in the air, reducing momentum
What are the major problems experienced with overstriding? with under striding?
In overstriding, there tends to be increased shock absorption related problems as well as forced knee hyperextension. In understriding ther tends to be excessive sagittal plane stress with anterior ankle impingement problems, increased stress on the achilles tendon and excessive patellar tendon stress (eccentric) with kinee flexion and increased patellofemoral pressures.
What is the purpose of knee flexion which occurs just after "foot strike"
theknee flexesnot jsut as a more poximal shock absorber bu thte ]knee flexion allows "unlocking " of the knee which alllows th tibia to internally rotation to allow taar adduction and subtalar jont pronation.
How dos the "take off" pahse in runnters contribute ot the development of foremfoot problems?
during take off there is trhe seocn peak in ground ratvie force whre force si concentratiedd on the forefoot. IN the faster runner or spinringrer, the marjoiry of ground contact tiem is on the forefoot with an elongated "take off" pahse whic hmaximaizes forcdces of nthe forefoot.
What are the differnt ways to classfiy limb lenth discrpancies?
structureal - 1 limb is structureally/anatomically longer than the other
function - boht limbs are of equal lenght but one leg funciotn shorter or longer the na the oter i.ed. Stj pronation shornenting a leg
combined- elemnt so fobth stgructual nand futnional
envrionment - both limbs oare of equal length bu the athelte may funciton assymmetricaly as a reuslt of the nvinemnt or sufac ethey are runnin on , such as hte sid eo facreste road sid of a hill etc.
What are some typicla limb compensation soccuring in astructrually olng limb?
MTJ pronation; stj rponation, excessive midsance kne flexon; excessiv ehip flexon and or internal roatinaon
how does the vack compensate for a limb length deixcrapncy?
in a simple , single curve, the back comensates wit ha funcitonal scoliosiss withthe back concave ot the long side and covex it oth sort side which results in a should er drop on the long side
]
with a more complex curve the back may attempt ot stabilze the cruve, resulting in 2 curve wiht the lumbar region concave ot the long and throacic covex ot th l ong and voersley on th sohoer. in this second scnear the schould dorp may level out or become lower on the shoert
The best phyhiscal indicator of hte short or long side in either a funciton or structrural limb lenght discrpancy is:
the level of the iliac crest which would be hgih on th loong and lower on thee short
Whre do most lmb compensatoin occur in the structual limb lenth dicscpancies?
msot occur on the long side sonce mos tcompenasation whic occour on the logn side tnd to be psssive requirin less intial energy expenditure, ie stj pronatoin. The ocmpoensations have atendiency to occur in the directon of least intial enrghy expenditure but only if ample motion is availbe in the compensatingjonjt
In limb length discrepanceis, whic hside tends to be more symptomatic and qhy?
ong side, sinc mos tcompensation occour there.
also stanc pahse tone to ble logner on the logn side
DEscrei bdiffent methnods for mdeterming or evaluating a limb lenth discrpancy
true limg lenght - asis to mallolus
aparent lemb lenght - umbiliucus to malleolus
standing limb lenths - considers the length of the limb form pelvis to the foor -- do in and and basde of gaitn and in neutral and ralxed caclaneal stnece to help determin structual vs funciotn and associated compoensation

triald lfits -- ad lifts unti pelvis olevel
segment lengths - floor to malleolus, msllolus ot knee jont lin, kne, join lein to asis etc.
sitting - on knee higher thant hteo other
lyin iwht knees flexed - one knee higher thatn the others
What are some findeins which may be observed on gait anlayisis n paients iet alimg lenth discrpancy
ina fusntion discrpancy identfy the funcion etiology and trat the etiolgy directlyh
in as turctual discrabcy add lift ot shor side - star 2ith 1/4 amoutn of the measure difence and add incrementally as needto reduce sympoms
What are variou parts ofr th rnning atheltic shoue upper
heel counter, heel collar (pull tab/notch , toe box, otngue eyelet, vam, shank
Waht factors will incrase the effective ness of the heel coutner of hte runnign sheo?
firm counter (plstic or more rigid materai)
reinforced odunter (ie increaed foxing,multipel materials)
haiger coutner, longer coutner, coutner firmly attached ot the midsoel; conter midsoel junciton reinforced by a heel stabilizer conutner on a firm midsoel
What are typical midsole materals and hwo are they measure
EVA polyurethane
EVA more cusione dfe and less durabole
plyuurethane more durable but less cushoined
meadure densety wiht durometer
softer -aobut 25
firmer - 45+
What is the differnece between a board/convention /machien cement laste shoe vs a slip moccoasin laste shneo
in a board last sheo th uppers ar glued/stitche thot he perephery fo the midsoe with the cneter of hte upeper open palntarly to th emidsoe. This opening is covered by a cardbard/fikberboard palte. This board tneds to make th shoe stiffer with more torsional stability.
In a slip laste soe the uppers cove the einteri palntar surfac stitched toger paltarly and the mateirla is atahced ot th mdisoel wit hfooot covero nthe sids nadplnatrly enterly b the upper . The slip lasted shoe tned to mbe more flexible iwth a nugger /improved fit.
What is a combination lasted shoe?
the typcal comanaito laste dhow is board lasted int hrefoot and lsip laste din tforefoot ot provied rearfoot stabilty and forefoot flexibilt and fit
How is the shpwe o fo thse shoe influence by the foot?
shoes can be described as ttaign sligly cuved , dsem ciruve o rcurved lasted
gnerally the sape of thefoot shoudl b ematche by the shpe of hte sohe.
rectus foot -straigh lasted shoe
adductus foot - curve dlast
What are some commmon ways ot incrase the shock absorvincapabilities of arunnign sheo?
low durometer midsoel
perofrated midsoled
air bags
sliolne or absorbing elels
compressinble flexible paltforoms
comrpessible flexib le vertic wall osor pillars
What is the sock line and wht is it is purpso
the soclk line is the insoe and hosu provid a smoot internal fonfome dliner assistn in reducing shock and incrasing cuhon, rduce shear nad firicon and absorb sweat
how would one go abaour eavualting a show ear pateter
-loook at upper ot see if thea yar bulign over medial or lwtera side
look at counter ot see if it sferitc or tipped meally or latarllyy. if hte cotnis firm or cracke nad htre iseveinde of ewen itnhe insied o court
look ainsone to se
look at midsone
look at oustj
Wha tefefct does a lateral midsoel flare hav oen athletic showe funciotn?
the flare may provide some suppoort agians inversion as it heit shte gorund at the most lateral aspect of hte midsole and rapily everts th foot. HOwever, thismay aggarvate pronatory problems becasue of theis rapid eversion, ie, posterio tibial tendonits aor posterior sheinspolients
What is a biased heel and what effect does it hav eo na runnng shoe
A biaswe dheel or "shi slpint cut off" is aroudn wedged off ara of hte midsole inthe posterior heel region. THis allows a a slower andmore gradual transition form heel contact ot fotoflant, therby reudcint anterio muscualr stesa ns tain arusiutlng in imporvemont tibialsi antero or extneosr mucl oversue, howeve ruin urrnier eiht achilles tendon problems heel coant cmay be more psoterio than norma with increase stress on the achilles wich may aggavate and achilles teidno problem
What is the iffience between a concentric and eccentri contraction, the
in a concentric contraction, the msucl eis contractin ad shrotengin,. n an eccentric ocntracito , the msucke is cotnract bu tlenghtenign (also called "negative'contracton)
What is ithediffeince betne isoemti isotonciand isokientidt
ismeteric no motin
isotionci ROM twith wiehg
What is delyaed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
This is sa transeitn muscle condition with sorenees and tightneess which most frequently occours folowoing resumotpn of an exercise progarm or folowing particualry intense activety, beleived ot be due ot meild teraing/damge ot connective tissue surroudning msucle fiber, bund and msucle,. The ocndition is slef limeint and may be releviedby passive stretch. This is hte day afert soreness whic hwea hvae allexperince at sometiem
How does delyae donset muscle soreness differ form extroion rhabdomyholis
DOMS is lef limitn on critical
rhbdomyosi j- cell dath, seve, renal compklcation etc.
What serum abnomalities may be seen with roabdomyolisi
High aldolase CPK
Asl high SGOT, LDH, succinidhdrogenase, cratine potassium adn phsophorsu
urine will test psitive for occult blod but won't show RBC or WBC and wont look red
What is a muscle strain
A strain is strehc or tear of a msucle whic mayu be acute due to as udden vilent event (msucle contractio nor vilent stretch) or ma be chonric due ot and oversued microtraumatic etiology whre due to repitve ocntratcion sth msucle may eventually strain
In general whci type so fmsucles are more porne ot msucle stein
more powoerful msucles
muslce subject otom ore ballsitic and faster activies
muscle with char einflexibl eor weak also
What is a muscle cramp and hwo is it treated
A msucle cramp is apianful muscluar contraciotn gernally beginning as an ara ofincrase elctrical sctivity in the musel proudicnt ainitially a singl focus of faxicualtio and hten spreading erraticaly gthohg the msucle
thjis genally ocour folwing porolng active or msuclru awork andmayu fatiguuw realeted rusluting hte nablity of thmsuct ot adquat rael or craetinga state of hyuper exictiabilty whte the msucle is more situmule
Asl influenc by fluid and eletroly depeltion,dhgy dion sweant iureis
treat with slow passive sterthcih, correc water and lelctlyi imbalances
When using an MRIto eavluate and aathletic injuury what is T1 iwehg eimage t2 with imag
T1 fat weinged, good for antamoy

T2 water weigh good for identify aras of fluid colleciot /inflammatory edma etc.

STiR - fat suppres- whre fat appaerwssdar emphasiazin fluid even more than a T2 with image, can be eith T1 or T2 type, but generaly T1
Te - timeto echo roe ceve emittd energy - shor in t1, long in T2
TR is the time to repeat the external energy stimualtion/source to excite atomic nuclei
What would an achiles tiendonits look likeo n MRI
the tndon shou be normally unifimrly black withbou anyh intradndinous incrased signas and sho9u dbbe of even size wothou nay particualr areas oenlargemtn

in achilles tnedonits, fings may range form wieni or thickneg of htetndon whtou chang eitn hesigna intensti to ares of intermediat sgnal s(streaks/clud)eithin the tnedon on T1 weighed iemage sond areas of hgih sgnal intenst with infmallmaotry edome on T2 or STIR images. The may also be cdercrease signa instensin in psterio teriangle faton T1 due ot infalmmotor changies in tthe triangle
Hwow woudl tenosynovitis appear on MRI in anahtlete wuspected of having tenosynovitis
due to iencrased fluid in the tendon sheat, there woudl be an itnermeida signal around the nedon T1 and an incrased high intensity signal around the tendon on Tq and STIR
How would bone contusion appear on MRI
the woudl be an ill-dfined ara of decfrase signa on T1 within tghe cancellosu ara of hte obne with andn invraes dignal intensity due ot fluid in th same oarea on T2 and STIR. This illdefine ara genarlly appear reticulated
How woudl stress fracture appear on MRI
v