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94 Cards in this Set

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Infant Reflexes: Rooting
Onset: 28 weeks gestation
Integration: 3 months
Stimulus: Stroke the corner of the mouth, upper lip, and lower lip
Response: Movement of the tongue, mouth, and/or head to the stimulus
Relevance: Allows searching for and locating feeding source.
Infant Reflexes: Suck-swallow
Onset: 28 weeks gestation
Integration: 2-5 months
Stimulus: Place examiner's index finger inside infant's mouth with head in mid-line.
Response: Strong, rhythmical sucking
Relevance: Allows ingestion of nourishment
Infant Reflexes: Traction
Onset: 28 weeks gestation
Integration: 2-5 months
Stimulus: Grasp infants forearms and pull to sit
Response: Complete flexion of upper extremities
Relevance: Enhances momentary reflexive grasp
Infant Reflexes: Moro
Onset: 28 weeks gestation
Integration: 4-6 months
Stimulus: Rapidly drop infant's head backward
Response: 1st phase- arm extension, abduction, hand opening. 2nd phase- arm flexion, adduction
Relevance: facilitates ability to depart from dominant flexor posture: protective response.
Infant Reflex: Plantar Grasp
Onset: 28 weeks gestation
Integration: 9 months
Stimulus: Apply pressure with thumb on the infant's ball of the foot
Response: Toe flexion
Relevance: Increases tactile input to sole of foot
Infant Reflex: Galant
Onset: 32 weeks gestation
Integration: 2 months
Stimulus: Hold infant in prone suspension, gently scratch or tap alongside the spine with finger, from shoulder to buttocks.
Response: Lateral trunk flexion and wrinkling of the skin on the stimulated side
Relevance: Facilitates lateral trunk movements necessary for trunk stabilization
Infant Reflex: Asymmetric Tonic Neck
Onset: 37 weeks gestation
Integration: 4-6 months
Stimulus: fully rotate infant's head and hold for 5 seconds
Response:Extension of extremities on the face side, flexion of extremities on the skull side.
Relevance: Promotes visual hand regard
Infant Reflexes: Palmar Grasp
Onset: 37 weeks gestation
Integration: 4-6 months
Stimulus: Place examiner's finger in infant's palm
Response: finger flexion; reflexive grasp
Relevance: Increases tactile input on palm of hand
Infant Reflexes: Tonic Labyrinthine-Supine
Onset: >37 weeks gestation
Integration: 6 months
Stimulus: Place infant in supine
Response: Increased extensor tone
Relevance: Facilitates total body extensor tone
Infant Reflexes: Tonic Labyrinthine- Prone
Onset: >37 weeks gestation
Integration: 6 months
Stimulus: Place infant in prone
Response: Increased flexor tone
Relevance: Facilitates total body flexor tone
Labyrinthine/optical (head) righting
Onset: Birth to 2 months
Integration: persists
Stimulus: Hold infant suspended vertically and tilt slowly (about 45 degrees) to the side, forward, or backward.
Response: Upright positioning of the head
Relevance: Orients head in space; maintains face vertical
Infant Reflex: Landau
Onset: 3-4 months
Integration: 12-24 months
Stimulus: Hold infant in horizontal prone suspension
Response: Complete extension of head, trunk, and extremities
Relevance: Breaks up flexor dominance; facilitates prone extension
Infant Reflex: Symmetric tonic neck
Onset: 4-6 months
Integration: 8-12 months
Stimulus: Place infant in crawling position and extend the head
Response: flexion of hips and knees
Relevance: Breaks up total extensor posture; facilitates static quaduped position
Infant Reflex: Neck Righting (NOB)
Onset: 4-6 months
Integration: 5 years
Stimulus: Place infant in supine and fully turn head to one side
Response: Log rolling of entire body to maintain alignment with the head
Relevance: Maintains head/body alignment; initiates rolling (first ambulation effort)
Infant Reflex: Body righting (on body) (BOB)
Onset: 4-6 months
Integration: 5 years
Stimulus: Place infant in supine, flex one hip and knee toward the chest and hold it briefly
Response: Segmental rolling of the upper trunk to maintain alignment
Relevance: Facilitates trunk/spinal rotation
Infant Reflex:Downward Parachute (protective extension downward)
Onset: 4 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: Rapidly lower infant toward supporting surface while vertically suspended.
Response: Extension of the lower extremities
Relevance: Allows accurate placement of lower extremities in anticipation of a surface
Infant Reflex: Forward parachute (protective extension forward)
Onset: 6-9 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: Suddenly tip infant forward toward supporting surface while vertically suspended.
Response: Sudden extension of upper extremities, hand opening, and neck extension
Relevance: Allows accurate placement of upper extremities in anticipation of supporting surface to prevent a fall
Infant Reflex: Sideward Parachute (protective extension sideways)
Onset: 7 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: Quickly, but firmly, tip infant off balance to the side while in sitting position
Response: Arm extension and abduction to the side
Relevance: Protect body to prevent fall; supports body for unilateral use of opposite arm.
Infant Reflex: Backward parachute (protective extension backward)
Onset: 9-10 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: Quickly but firmly tip infant off balance backward
Response: Backward arm extension or arm extension to one side
Relevance: Protects body to prevent a fall; unilaterally facilitates spinal rotation
Infant Reflex: Prone tilting
Onset: 5 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: After positioning infant in prone, slowly raise one side of supporting surface
Response: Curving of the spine toward the raised side (opposite to the pull of gravity); abduction/extension of arms and legs
Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions.
Infant Reflex: Supine tilting and sitting tilting
Onset: 7-8 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: After positioning infant in supine or sitting, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
Response: Curving of the spine toward the raised side (opposite to the pull of gravity); abduction/extension of arms and legs
Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions.
Infant reflex: quadruped tilting
Onset: 9-12 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: After positioning infant on all fours, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
Response: Curving of the spine toward the raised side (opposite to the pull of gravity); abduction/extension of arms and legs
Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions.
Infant reflex: standing tiliting
Onset: 12-21 months
Integration: Persists
Stimulus: After positioning the infant in standing, slowly raise one side if the supporting surface
Response: Curving of the spine toward the raised side (opposite to the pull of gravity); abduction/extension of arms and legs
Relevance: Maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions.
Gross Motor Skills
Prone Position
0-2 months
- Turns head side to side
- Lifts head momentarily
- Bends hips with bottom in air
- Lifts head and sustains in midline
- Rotates head freely when up
- Able to bear weight on forearms
- Able to tuck chin and gaze at hands in forearm prop
- Attempts to shift weight on forearms, resulting in shoulder collapse
Gross Motor Skills
Prone Position
5-6 months
- Shifts weight on forearms and reaches forward
- Bears weight and shifts weight on extended arms
- Legs are closer together and thighs roll inward toward natural alignment
- Hips are flat on surface
- Equilibrium reactions are present
Gross Motor Skills
Prone Position
5-8 months
- Airplane posturing in prone position; chest and thighs lift off of surface
Gross Motor Skills
Prone Position
7-8 months
- Pivots in prone position
- Moves to prone position to sit
Gross Motor Skills
Prone Position
9 months
Begins to dislike prone position
Gross Motor Skills
Supine Position
0-3 months
- Head held to one side
- Able to turn head side to side
Gross Motor Skills
Supine Position
3-4 months
- Holds head in midline
- Chin is tucked and neck lengthens in back
- Legs come together
- Lower back flattens against floor
Gross Motor Skills
Supine Position
4-5 months
- Head lag is gone when pulled to a sitting position
- Hands are together in space
Gross Motor Skills
Supine Position
5-6 months
- Lifts head independently
- Brings feet to mouth
- Brings hand to feet
- Able to reach for toy with one or both hands
- Hands are predominantly open
Gross Motor Skills
Supine Position
7-8 months
- Equilibrium reactions are present
Gross Motor Skill
Rolling
3-4 Months
Rolls from prone position to side accidentally because of poor control of weight shift
- Rolls from supine position to side
Gross Motor Skill
Rolling
5-6 Months
- Rolls from prone to supine position
- Rolls from supine position to side with right and left leg performing independent movements
- Rolls from supine to prone position with right and left leg performing independent movements
Gross Motor Skill
Rolling
6-14 Months
- Rolls segmentally with roll initiated by the head, shoulder, or hips
Gross Motor Skill
Creeping
7 Months
- Crawls forward on belly
Gross Motor Skill
Creeping
7-10 Months
-Reciprocal creep
Gross Motor Skill
Creeping
10-11 Months
- Creeps on hands and feet
Gross Motor Skill
Creeping
11-12 Months
- Creeps well
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
0-3 Months (held in sitting)
- Head bobs in sitting
- Back is rounded
- Hips are apart, turned out, bent
- Head is steady
Chin tucks; able to gaze at floor
- Sits with less support
- Hips are bent and shoulders are in front of hips
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
5-6 months (supports self in sitting)
- Sits alone momentarily
- Increased extension in back
- Sits by propping forward on arms
- Wide base, legs are bent
- Periodic use of "high guard" position
- Protective responses present when falling to the front
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
5-10 months (sits alone)
- Sits alone steadily, initially with wide base of support
- Able to play with toys in a sitting position.
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
6-11 Months
- Gets to sitting position from prone
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
7-8 Months
- Equilibrium reactions are present
- - Able to rotate upper body while lower body remains stationary
- Protective responses are present when falling to the side
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
8-10 Months
- Sits well with support
- Legs are closer; full upright position, knees straight
- Increased variety of positions, including "W" sit and side sit
- Difficult fine motor tasks may prompt return to wide base of support
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
9-18 Months
- Rises from supine position by first rolling over to stomach, then pushing up into four-point position
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
10-12 Months
- Protective extension backwards, first with bent elbows then with straight elbows
- Able to move in and out of sitting position to other positions
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
11-12 Months
- Trunk control and equilibrium responses are fully developed in sitting position
- Further increase in variety of positions possible
Gross Motor Skill
Sitting
11-24 Months
- Rises from supine by first rolling to side then pushing up into sitting position.
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
0-3 Months
- When held in standing position, takes some weight on legs
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
2-3 Months
- When held in standing position, legs may give way
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
3-4 Months
- Bears some weight on legs
- Head is up in midline, no chin tuck
- Pelvis and hips are behind shoulders
- Legs are apart and turned outward
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
5-10 Months
- Stands while holding onto furniture
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
5-6 Months
- Increased capability to bear weight
- Decreased support needed; may be held by arms or hands
- Legs are still spread apart and turned outward
- Bounces in standing position
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
6-12 Months
- Pulls to standing position at furniture
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
8-9 Months
- Rotates the trunk over the lower extremities
- Lower extremities are more active in pulling to a standing position
- Pulls to a standing position by kneeling, then half kneeling
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
9-13 Months
- Pulls to standing position with legs only, no longer needs arms
- Stands alone momentarily
Gross Motor Skill
Standing
12 Months
- Equilibrium reactions are present in standing
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
8 Months
Cruises Sideways
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
8-18 Months
Walks with two hands held
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
9-10 Months
Cruises around furniture, turning slightly in intended direction
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
9-17 Months
Takes independent steps, falls easily
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
10-14 Months
Walking: stoops and recovers in play
Gross motor skill
Walking
11 Months
- Walks with one hand held
- Reaches for furniture out of reach when cruising
- Cruises in either direction, no hesitation
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
15 Months
Able to start and stop in walking
Gross Motor Skill
Walking
18 Months
- Seldom Falls
- Runs stiffly with eyes on ground
Gross Motor Skill
Release
0-1 Month: No release, grasp reflex is strong
1-4 Months: Involuntary release
4 Months: Mutual fingering in midline
4-8 Months: Transfers objects from hand to hand
5-6 Months: Two stage transfer; taking hand grasps before releasing hand lets go
6-7 Months: One stage transfer; taking hand and releasing hand perform actions simultaneously
Gross Motor Skill
Release
7-9 Months: Volitional release
7-10 Months: Presses down on surface to release
8 Months: Releases above a surface with wrist flexion
9-10 Months: Releases into a container with wrist straight
10-14 Months: Clumsy release into small container; hand rests on edge of container
12-15 Months: Precise, controlled release into small container with wrist extended.
Gross Motor Skill
Stair Climbing
15 Months: Creeps up stairs
18-24 Months: Walks up stairs while holding on; walks down stairs while holding on
18-23 Months: Creeps backward down stairs
2-2.5+ Years: Walks up stairs without support, marking time; walks down stairs without support, marking time
2-2.5-3 Years: Walks up stairs, alternating feet
3-3.5 Years: Walks down stairs, alternating feet
Gross Motor Skill
Jumping & Hopping
2 Year: Jumps down from step
2.5+ Year: Hops on one foot, few steps
3 Year: Jumps off floor with both feet
3-5 Year: Jumps over objects
3.5-5 Year: Hops on one foot
3-4 Year: Gallops, leading with one foot and transferring weight smoothly and evenly
5 Year: Hops in a straight line
5-6 Year: Skips on alternating feet, maintaining balance
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional Morality: Occurs up until the age of 8
Stage 1: Punishment and obedience- the child is obedient in order to avoid punishment.
Stage 2: Instrumental relativism- the child makes moral choices based on the benefits to self and sometimes to others.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 2: Conventional Morality: Occurs at about 9 or 10 years of age
Stage 1: Social Conformity- The child desires to gain the approval of others
Stage 2: Law and Order- Rules and social norms are internalized
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 3: Post Conventional Morality- Age range will vary and not all will achieve this level
1- Social Contracts: The young adult has social awareness and an awareness of the legal implications of decisions/actionsnn
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Basic trust v. mistrust
The infant/baby realizes that survival and comfort needs will be met; hope is integrated into the personality (birth to 18 months)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Autonomy v. doubt and shame
The child realizes that he can control bodily functions; self-controlled will is integrated into the personality
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Initiative v. guilt
The child gains social skills and a gender role identity; a sense of purpose is integrated into the personality (preschool age)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Industry v. inferiority
The child gains sense of security through peers and gains mastery over activities of his/her age group; a feeling of competency is integrated into the personality
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Self identity v. role diffusion
The teenager begins to make choices about adult roles, and with the resolution of this identity crisis a sense of fidelity or membership with society is integrated into the personality (teenage years)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Intimacy and solidarity v. isolation
The young adult establishes an intimate relationship with a partner and family; the capacity to love is achieved (young adulthood)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Generativity v. self absorption
The adult finds security in the contribution of his chosen personal/professional roles; the capacity to care is achieved (middle adulthood)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
Integrity v. despair
The mature adult reflects on his or her own value, and shares with the younger generation the knowledge gained; wisdom is acquired (maturity)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
If the lower levels are not met, the individual is unable to work on higher pursuits
1- Philosophic: Basic survival needs (food, water, rest, warmth)
2- Safety: The need for physical and psychological security
3- Love and belonging: The need for affection, emotional support and group affiliation
4- Self-esteem: The need to believe in one's self as a competent and valuable member of society
5- Self actualization: The need to achieve one's personal goals; after attaining all of the psychosocial developmental milestones.
Piaget's Constructs
Adaptation
Responding to environmental challenges as they occur
Piaget's Constructs
Mental Schemes
Organizing experiences into concepts
Piaget's Constructs
Operations
The cognitive method used by the child to organize schemes and experiences to direct subsequent actions
Piaget's Constructs
Adapted intelligence
Cognitive competence
Piaget's Constructs
Equilibrium
The balance between what the child knows and can act on and what the environment provides
Piaget's Constructs
Assimilation
The ability to take a new situation and change it to match an existing scheme or generalization
Piaget's Constructs
Accomodation
The development of a new scheme in response to the reality of a situation, or discrimination.
Piaget's Sensory Motor Period
Birth to 2 years
-Reflexive stage: schemes begin in response to reflexes (1 month).
- Primary circular reactions: child learns about cause and effect as a result of reflexive sensorimotor patterns that are repeated for enjoyment (2-4 months)
- Secondary circular reactions: Voluntary movement patterns emerge due to coordination of vision and hand function, and an early awareness of cause and effect develops (5-8 months)
- Coordination of secondary schemata: Voluntary movement in response to stimuli that cannot be seen such as in object permanence, and early development of decentered thought (9-12 months)
- Tertiary circular reactions: The child seeks out new schemes, with improved gross and fine motor abilities, tool use begins (12-18 months).
- Intervention of new means through mental combinations: The child demonstrates insight and purposeful tool use, and explores problem solving options. The ability to represent concepts without direct manipulation emerges (18 months to 2 years).
- Child progresses from reflexive activity to mental representation, to cognitive functions of combining and manipulating objects in play.
Piaget's Preoperational Period
Age 2-7 Years
Classification: categorizing objects according to similarities and differences.
Seriation: The relationship of one object or classification of objects to another
Conservation: The end product of the preoperational period. The child is able to recognize the continuities of an object or class of objects in spite of apparent changes.
The preoperational period is divided into 2 phases
- Preconceptual: The child expands vocabulary and symbolic representations (2 to 4 years)
- Intuitive thought phase: The child imitates, copies, or repeats what is seen or heard and bases conclusions on what he believes to be true, rather than logic.Inductive reasoning denotes a transition to the next stage.
Child progresses from dependence on perception, as opposed to logic, and egocentric orientation and logical thought, for solving problems. Child enjoys verbal play.
Piaget's Concrete Operations
Age 7-11 years
- Reversibility: an expansion of conservation, leads to increased spatial awareness.
- Rules: as rules are better understood, they are also applied.
- Empirico-inductive thinking: the child solves problems with the information that is obvious and present.
- Child uses logical thinking on observed or mentally represented objects, enjoying games with rules, which help the child adjust to social demands.
Piaget's Formal Operations
Age 11 through the teen years
- Hypothetico-deductive thinking; the ability to analyze and plan.
- Child uses logic to hypothesize many ways to solve problems, and can draw from past and present experiences to imagine what can have an effect on future situations.