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48 Cards in this Set

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Components of the CNS
The CNS consists of the brain (cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum) and spinal cord protected by the skill and spinal column (vertebrae).
Components of the PNS
The PNS includes the spinal nerves and most of the cranial nerves which connect the brain and spinal cord with peripheral structures
The anatomical classification of the brain splits it into the CNS and PNS. The Functional classification allows the nervous system to be divided into two major systems also:
1) The somactic nervous system, whose function is to control structures of the body
2) The autonomic nervous system, whose function is to control structures of the organ systems
Somatic Nervous System components and functions (2)
-Comprised of CNS and PNS structures responsible for:
1) conveying and processing conscious and unconscious sensory (afferent) information from the body
2) motor (efferent) control of voluntary (striated) muscle
Autonomic Nervous System (Visceral nervous system, Visceromotor nervous sytem) components, functions (2), and 2 subsystems
-comprised of CNS and PNS structures responsible for:
1) motor control of the involuntary (smooth) musculature and cardiac musculature of glands and of the viscera (organs)
2) conveys sensory information from visceral organs
-The 2 subsystems that it is composed of are the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
The CNS develops from...
a hollow structure called the neural tube
There are three divisions (enlargements or swellings) in the cranial end of the neural tube during the 4th weeks
1) Forebrain
2) Midbrain
3) Hindbrain
During the 5th weeks, Secondary Swellings occur in the forebrain and hindbrain to give a total of 5 major divisions of the embryonic brain
The embryonic forebrain is divided into the
1) telencephalon
2) diencephalon
The midbrain does not partition further and remiands the
3) midbrain
The hindbrain is divided into the
4) metencephalon
5) myelencephalon
Adult brain subdivisions in the forebrain (2)
Forebrain derivative include the
1) Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres)
2) Diencephalon, which is composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus

the midbrain stays the same
Adult brain subdivisions in the hindbrain (2)
Hindbrain derivatives include
a) the Pons and Cerebellum from the metencephalon
b) Medulla Oblongata (medulla) forms from the meyelencephalon
Brainstem components (3)
midbrain, pons, and medulla
Bulb
the pons and medulla are referred to as the bulb. this gives rise to terms such as Corticobulbar Tracts.
Ventricular System (5)
The lumen of the neural tube goes into the adult brain and each of the major regions of the brain has a named portion of this system:
1) Cerebrum - each hemisphere contains a lateral ventricle (ventricle 1 and 2)
2) Diencephalon contains the 3rd ventricle
3) Midbrain contains the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
4) The pons and medulla contain the 4th ventricle
5) The spinal cord contains the central canal
Each hemisphere of the brain has 4 main components
1) cortex - which is made up of surface grey matter (cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses)
2) white matter (masses of axons, esp. myelinated ones) unerlying the cortex (subcortical)
3) basal ganglia (basal nuclei; deep gray matter or deep cerebral nuclei)
4) ventricles (cavities/spaces)
The sulci and gyri allow each hemisphere to be organized into 6 lobes
1) frontal
2) parietal
3) occipital
4) temporal
5) insular - underneath frontal and temporal
6) limbic system
Longitudinal fissure
separates the two cerebral hemispheres
central sulcus (of Rolando)
separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
lateral sulcus (of Sylvius)
separates frontal lobe from temporal lobe
calcarine sulcus
divides the medial surface of the occipital lobe into an upper (cuneus) and lower (lingula) portion
it is surrounded by the primary visual cortex and is often called the upper and lower banks of the calcarine sulcus
parieto-occipital sulcus
-separates occipital lobe from parietal lobe on medial surface
-separation of occipital lobe from parietal lobe on lateral surface is an imaginary line drawn from the parito-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch
4 Different gyri of the frontal lobe
precentral gyri & superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri
3 different gyri and 2 different lobules of the parietal lobe
consists of the postcentral gyrus.
consists of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (separated by the intraparietal sulcus)
inferior parietal lobule contains the supramarginal and angular gyri
4 gyri of the temporal lobe
consists of the temporal gyri, which has superior, middle, and inferior gyri
consists of the parahippocampal gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus - 2 parts
a) cortex which overlies the hippocampus
b) the uncus - which is a medial bulge of the parahippcampal gyrus and overlies the amygdala.
uncal herniation
sometimes with increased intracranial pressure the temporal lobe herniates under the tentorium cerebelli and the uncus compresses cranial nerve III
occipital lobe gyri (3)
-occipital gyri is the general name for the gyri of the lateral portion of this lobe
-the medial surface of this lobe is divided into an upper portion called the Cuneus and a lower portion called the Lingula by the calcarine sulcus.
upper and lower banks of the calcarine surface
the cortex immediately above and below the calcarine sulcus is called this
3 functional areas of the cortex
a) primary motor area
b) primary somatosensory area
c) functional areas - Brodmann's areas
Brodmann's areas - 4 areas and their functions
1) area 4 - primary motor cortex
a) corresponds roughly to precentral gyrus
b) control of voluntary movements

2) area 3,1,2 - postcentral gyrus; primary somatosensory cortex
a) corresponds roughly to postcentral gyrus
b) processes sensory info from the body
4 regions of the diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus
Thalamus - consists of and function (1)
composed of separate groups of cells called thalamic nuclei. they function as relay stations for all sensory impulses, except olfaction, to the cerebral cortex
Nucleus Ventralis Posterolateralis (VPL) - what is it and its function
one example of specific thalamic nuclei.
processes somatic sensory information and relays it to primary sensory cortex
Hypothalamus - consists of and functions (3)
comprised of hypothalamic nuclei which receive info about the external environment.
some of its functions are to
a)control and integrate ANS
b)control and regulate food intake
c)control and regulate endrocrine systems
Hypothalamus is physically attached to and intimately functionally related to what gland
pituitary gland
Epithalamus (above the thalamus) consists of several small portions including the...
pineal gland, which may be involved in circadian rhythms.
Diencephalon is the attachment site of what nerve
-CN II - optic nerve
-the optic nerve and a portion of the retina are embryological outgrowths of the diencephalon
-optic chiasm and optic tracts are related to this nerve
Ventricular system of the diencephalon is what ventricle
third ventricle
3 Parts of Brainstem
midbrain, pons, medulla
superior colliculi function (part of tectum of midbrain)
reflex center for movement of eyeballs and head and neck in response to visual stimuli
inferior colliculi function (part of tectum of midbrain)
reflex center for movement of the head and neck in response to auditory stimuli
Cerebral Peduncles of midbrain components and function
most ventral portion of midbrain.
they contain nerve fibers (corticospinal tracts) that convey motor impulses from the cerebral cortex to the pons, medulla, and spinal cord
midbrain is the origin of what 2 cranial nerves
III and IV
the cerebral aqueduct of sylvius connecting what 2 ventricles
3rd and 4th
Pons is the origin of what 4 cranial nerves
V, VI, VII, and VIII
what ventricle is ventricle of pons
4th
cerebellum has 3 distinct parts and 2 main functions
a) vermis - midline, worm-like portion
b) two lateral hemispheres

1) coordinates subconscious contractions of skeletal muscles
2) maintains equilibrium and controls posture
Medulla is origin of what 4 crainial nerves
IX, X, XI, XII
what ventricle is the ventricle of the medulla
4th