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### 34 Cards in this Set

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 Concept Generalized mental image of objects Properties Qualities or attributes that are usually peculiar to an object--determine properties with senses Referent Refer to or think of, a given property in terms of another, more farmiliar object Measurment Process 1. Comparing referent unit to property being described 2. Following procedure which specifies how comparision is made 3. Counting how many standard units describe property being considered Controlled Experiement Compares 2 situations that have all the influencing factors identical except 1 Control Group Situation used as basis of comparision Experimental Group Other group Experiemental Variable Single influencing factor that is allowed to be different in experimental group Scientific Law Describes an important relationship that is observed in nature to occur consistently time after time--what happens in nature Model Description of a theory or idea that accounts for all known properties Theory Braod, working hypothesis based on extensive experimental evidence--tells you why something happened Speed Measure of how fast you are moving Speed = distance/ time Velocity Describes the speed and direction of a moving object Acceleration Rate at which motion changed 1. Changing speed 2. Changing direction 3. Changing both speed and direction Acceleration = change of velocity/ time elaspsed Force Push or pull capable of changing the state of motion of an object Net Force Sum of all forces acting on an object Fundamental Forces - Cannot be explained in terms of any other force - Responsible for everything that happens in the universe 1. Gravitational Forces 2. Electromagnetic Forces 3. Weak Nuclear Forces 4. Strong Nuclear Forces Gravitational Forces act between all objects in the universe Electromanetic Forces Responsible for structure of atoms, chemical change, electricity, and magnetism Weak Nuclear Forces Involved in certain nuclear reactions Strong Nuclear Forces - Involved in close-range holding of the nucleus together - Stronger than gravitational and electromagnetic Inertia Behavior of matter to persist in its state of motion Free Fall When objects fall towards Earth w/out considering air resistance; considers only gravity and neglects air resistance Balanced and Unbalanced Forces - Motion continues unchanged with out unbalanced forces - retarding forces decrease speed - boost increases speed - sideways force changes direction Types of Motion 1. Vertical Motion 2. Horizontal Motion 3. Combination of both vertical and horizontal motion Projectile Motion An object thrown into the air Verticle Projectile - Slows going up - Stops at top - Accelerates downward - Gravity acts at all times - Acceleration is independent of the object's motion Horizontal Projectile - Horizontal velocity remains the same - Taken with vertical motion = curved path Newton's First Law of Motion - "The law of Inertia" -An object in motion stays in motion, and an object at rest stays at rest - Inertia resists any changes in motion Newton's Second Law of Motion - Forces cause acceleration--change in motion evidence of net force - Accerleration of object is directly proportional to net force acting on it and inversely proportional to the mass of object - More force--more accerleration -More maa--less acceleration Mass - Quantitative measure of inertia - Amount of matter - Measured in kilograms Weight - Force of gravity acting on mass - Measured in pounds and newtons Newton's Third Law of Motion - Source of force--other objects -Relates force between objects - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Momentum (p) - Important property of movement closely related to Newton's 2nd Law - Includes effects of both motujon (velocity) and intertia (mass) - P = mass x velocity - P - mv