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49 Cards in this Set

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Living things too small to be seen by the naked eye are the focus of the scientific discipline known as
Define Viruse
Are the simplest organisms on Earth.
Are viruses included in the current Linnaean classification system?
When was the first virus actually isolated and identified?
Who actually isolated and identified the first virus?
Wendell Stanley
What is the study of viruses called?
What are the parts of a virus?
*together called nucleocapsid
Envelope/viral membrane
What is the Capsid?
An outer protein coat that surrounds the inner core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
What does the inner core contain?
DNA/RNA/ several hundred genes
Together the core and capsid are called?
What is a virus called that has a viral membrane/envelope?
Enveloped viruses
What is a virus called that lacks a viral membrane/envelope?
Naked virus.
Most viruses have what kind of shape?
Icosahedral structure
Icosahedral structure means?
That they have 20 sides, each of which is shaped like and equilateral triangle.
What is a bacteriphage?
A virus with a tail structure that makes it easier to penetrate bacterial cells and thereby infect them.
Where do viruses replicate?
In another organisms cell
How do viruses reproduce?
Viruses reproduce by attaching to a host cell and inserting their genetic core into the host.
Describe the lytic pathway.
Virus penetrates hosts cell, enzymes disassemble capsid, viruses nucleic acid to move freely within cell, takes over cells repro mechanisms, causing cell to produce viral nucleic acids/enzymes/proteins, all of which assemble into new virons. Eventually, the host cell dies, breaking open and releasing the newly created viruses.
What is the most common form of viral replication?
The lytic pathway.
What is a provirus?
A viruse that inserts their DNA into host cell, so that each time the host cell goes through a growth & division cycle, the viral DNA is replicated along with the hosts DNA.
What is lysogeny?
In which a gene from the inserted viral material causes the creation of a repressor protein that inhibits transcription of messenger RNA from the genes causing virulent behavior.
When is a virus said to be dormant or temperate?
When it is not actively reproducing and contributing to the death of the host cell.
What are the 3 major classes of viruses?
Plant viruses
Animal viruses
What do bacteriophages consist of?
DNA strand
Surrounding protein coat
Tail structure
What is phage-mediated transduction?
When the bacteriophage invades a new host cell, it will inject a bit of the orginal host cell's DNA into that cell. This DNA recombines with the DNA of the new cell
What are some of the major methods used to combat disease-causing viruses?
Altering viral enzymes
Tying up viral genes
Use of interferons
Synthesizing antiviral vaccines
What Kindgom does Bacteria belong to?
Monera and they are the only members.
What is nitrogen fixation?
Where bacteria "fix" nitrogen and oxidize it and convert it to amino acids and nucleotides.
What is bacteria main reproduction method?
Binary fission.
Why does bacteria reproduce by binary fission?
Because they are prokaryotes, meaning they have no nucleus.
What are the two broad subkingdoms of bacteria?
Give the characteristics of Archaebacteria.
Less common that Eubacteria
Earlier in evolutionary chain
Live in harsher conditions
Does not cause disease in humans
What are the four categories of bacteria metabolic characteristics?
Describe Photoautotrophs
These cells contain a modified form of chlorophyll, and they derive their energy from photosynthesis.
EX. Green bacteria
2 types purple bacteria
Can survive in aerobic/anerobic enviroments. Commonly classified as Eubacteria.
Describe Photoheterotrophs
Are bacteria that use light along with organic materials synthesized by other living thins as its source of energy.
What does autotrophy mean?
describes organisms that are self-feeding
What does heterophy mean?
is the term that describes organisms that depend on other organisms for food.
Describe chemoautotrophs
are bacteria that make their own food and get their energy from primary chemicals present in their environments.
Describe chemoheterotrophs
are bacteria that get their food and thereby obtain their energy through the consumption of organic chemicals produced by other living things. EX. E coli and Salmonella
What are protists?
Single-celled Eukaryotes
Swimming plant-like cells
Creeping fungi-like cells
Stationary Animal-like cells
Red, Green, or Brown algae
Protists appeared in what era?
Describe protist reproduction
Both sexual and asexual
Most common protists are
Water molds
Slime molds
What is spontaneous generation?
the theory that organisms could come into being directly from nonliving matter.
Who refuted the theory of spontaneous generation?
Louis Pasteur
Give the 4 major groups of protozoans
Flagellated protozoans
Amoeboid protozoans
Ciliated protozoans