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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a virus?
Viruses are the simples organisms on Earth.
What is a capsid?
Outer protein coat that surrounds the inner core of nucleic acid.
Together the capsid and the core are known as a ____________
In some virions the nucleocapsid is covered by and __________ or _______ ___________ made up of lipids and proteins
viral membrane
Viruses with this outer layer are known as
Enveloped viruses.
While those without an outer layer are known as
A naked virus
Most viruses, have an ___________ __________, which means that they have 20 sides, each of which is shaped like an equilateral triangle.
icoshedral structure
Bacteriophages have a complex structure that makes it easier for them to penetrate bacterial cells and thereby infect them, what is this structure?
It is a tail
What is the lytic pathway?
1.) Viruse penetrates cell
2.) Viral enzymes disassemble the capsid.
3.) Viral nucleic acid move freely in cell
4.) VN takes over cells repro system
5.) Production of viral nucleic acids, enzymes & proteins.
6.) Products of repro assemble new virons.
7.) Death of Lysis of host
** With this pathway, cell itself does not undergo repro**
What is the most common form of viral replication?
The Lytic Pathway.
What is a provirus?
A virus that inserts its DNA into the chromosome of the host cell so that each time the host cell goes through a growth and division cycle, the viral DNA is replicated along with the host's chromosomes.
The proviruses replication cycle is called?
Define lysogeny
In which a gene from the inserted viral material causes the creation of a repressor protein that inhibits transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the genes causing virulent behavior.
Does lysogeny result in the death of the host cell?
In lysogeny the virus is said to be _________ or _____________ since it is not actively reproducing and contributing to the death of the host cell
Another name for lysogeny is
The temperate pathway
Can the temperate pathway be switched over to the lytic pathway?
When the temperate pathway also called lysogeny is switched over to the lytic pathway, what is the causes and mechanisms?
Environmental conditions and time may cause a reduction in the amount of repressor protein in the host cell, thereby leading the viral DNA to reproduce independently of the processes taking place in the host cell and marking the beginning of the lytic pathway.
Name the types of viruses known
Plant viruses
Animal viruses
How does a bacteriophage replicate?
Either lytic or temperate/lysogenic pathway.
What is phage-mediated transduction?
When a BCTP produces its protein coat within the host cell, it may enclose some of the host cell's DNA along with its own genetic material. Thus, when this BCTP invades a new host cell, it will inject a bit of the original host cell's DNA into that cell. If this DNA recombines with the DNA of the new cell, the process called phage-mediated transduction occurs.
Describe plant virus symptoms
Oddly colored, spotted, or blistered leaves; misshapen fruit, tumor-like growths; and color changes in blossoms.
Name some common Animal viruses
Common cold
Dengue fever
Yellow fever
Chronic wasting disease