Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Genetics?
Is the modern science that explains the mechanisms of heredity.
What is pangenesis?
The concept of pangenesis maintained that there were particles call gemmules from every part of the body that gathered in the gametes.
Who is Gregor Mendel?
The father of genetics.
What is the Particulat (gene) theory of heredity?
Is and idea that heredity is based on the interaction of discrete, separate particles called genes rather than a simple blending of factors.
What are the two major laws of genetics that Mendal was able to determine?
1.) Law of Segregation
2.) Law of independent assortment/Law of unit Characters.
Describe the Law of Segregation.
States that one pair of genes controls each of the traits that can be observed in living things and that during gamete formation, the members of these pairs separate from each other so that only one member of each pair is present in the resulting gamete.
Describe the Law of Independent Assortment of The Law of Unit Characteristics
Maintains that traits are inherited independent of each other, and that the laws of probability can be sued to calculate which traits will be visible in an organism.
Define Alleles
is a form of a gene that is responsible for a particular variation of a trait when two or more variation s of that trait exist.
Define Dominant Gene/Allele
The gene that is responsible for the visible trait.
Define Recessive Gene/Allele
The gene that is responsible for the unseen trait.
Define Homozygous
If the two alleles that govern a certain trait in the zygote are the same, the individual organism that develeops from that fertilized cell is said to be homozygous for that particular trait.
Define Heterozygosity
If the zygote contains two different alleles for the same trait, the organism is said to be heterozygous for the trait.
Define Genotype
Is the sum total of its genes, both dominant and recessive, expressed and not expressed.
What is Phenotype
Consists of only observable traits. Such as eye color and hair color.
What is a cross?
Involves breeding two different organisms to produce offspring that carry genes and alleles from both parents.
What is a Monohybrid cross?
Is one in which two parents with different alleles for the same gene are bred with one another.
What is a Dihybrid cross?
is a cross between parents that differ in terms of two characteristics that are controlled by two unrelated genes.
In human cells there is on pair of ________ ___________, which carry hereditary information about gender.
Sex chromosomes
There are _______ ______ of autosomes.
22 pairs
The female sex chromosomes are
What are X-linked disorders.
Disorders linked with the male X chromosome. Hemophilia is one example. This is passed down through the maternal side of families.
What are the degrees of dominance?
Complete dominance
Incomplete dominance
What is complete dominance?
A dominant allele for a particular trait completely suppresses any expression of the recessive allele.
What is Codominance?
The two alleles in a gene pair are not identical, yet expression of both alleles can be observed in a heterozygous individual
What is Incomplete dominace?
The Phenotype of a heterozygous individual reflects some intermediate level between that coded for the dominant allele and the coded for by the recessive allele.
What is polygenic Inheritance?
Rather than being controlled by only one pair of genes, these traits are controlled by multiple gene pairs.
What are some major genetic disorders?
Down syndrome
Huntington's Disease