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74 Cards in this Set

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What do seasons influence about animals?
availability and movement
Which animals are more than likely to be caught over the others? early night movers or later night movers?
early night movers
What should you consider when deciding on distance for traps?
depends on the mobility of
What mammal is a human health hazard?
shrew toxins
How can you get the hanta virus?
inhaling the hanta virus
Within how many days should you get a cold checked out after inahling aerosols from a mammals feces?
54 days
If you plan on trapping an animals in a known infected area for the hanta virus what protection should you use?
respirator, extreme precautions, face shield, coveralls and gloves
What can cause a population to fluctuate?
precipitation and temperature
To measure population density accurately for herpes how many years should be measured to capture the variability and what is going on?
5-8 years
How long should population densities for small mammals be measured?
3-5 years, not as much of a span as herpes
If you have one or two specific species to measure what can you do? what species is an example and where do they live?
go to their specific habitats green salamander, moist rock crevices (mountains)
How can you determine that the animal isn't there after you've searched? how do you determine how many times you should check before you can conclude they don't exist in that location?
depends on the probability of finding that species in that location
How much drug do you deliver to a particular animal?
estimate according to weight
What should you do when you capture an animal?
mark the animal to get a ratio of marked an unmarked
What should a good mark do?
allow you identify easily, no deleterious impact of survival or behavior, durability, produce minimum pain or stress, ease of application and price
What is a warning of an ear tag?
don't push it so tight that is cramps the ear
What are some dangers of a neck collar?
buck's necks swell when they run, canadian geese-ice can freeze between neck and collar and choke the geese, if its too loose my come off or cuase a limb to get caught and break
What technique is mutilation and what is it done on?
numerical digit, causes pain, done on herps and frogs, shouldn't use if don't have to
How is a turtle tagged?
a mark is drilled on the turtles shell, causes tissue damage
Difference between hot branding and freeze branding?
freeze branding much more humane, hot branding painful, freeze branding uses copper or brass and is super cooled
Why is a disadvantage to water dye?
it can mold and only lasts until it molds
What are microchips, advantages of them and what are they made of?
PIT- passive integrated transponder, transmits back and alpha numeric code, place under skin, causes minimal pain, failure rate that can become a prob., have to be within 4 inches of reader gun, made of glass
What was negative about the radio transmitters used on lions?
causes them to be recognized different from other mountain lions, first solar battery transmitters
What is it called to determine a bird's call?
pneumonics-times of calls
What does the carolina wren's call sound like?
cheeseburger
What should a good monitoring program do?
needs population senses data,needs demographic data for at least the key species-requires intensive data-for a specific area, need to take impt. habitat data, population data in relation to habitat
How do you select an indicator species and what is a prime example?
politically and biologically,bob white quail, species that are special concern
What is a hierarchal nested approach?
different levels of intensity data, general data over large areas and specific data over small areas
What is nesting?
same area from small subsets
Why should you monitor a very unique habitat?
might be influencing entire region
What is a point count census?
timed area counts, 50 point count stations, each separated by half mile, needs to be at least 250 meters apart to ensure not overlapping
IF doing a point count census for birds how is it done?
can't have rain and cant have winds above 3 mph, listen for 3 min.and go for 3 1/2 hrs
What is a transect survey?
use a continuous length and the area that is being sampled depends on how you measure the width
How far away can coyotes hear signals?
about 10 km
How many coyotes will respond and to what type of noise?
electronic signals rather than police siren, about 50%
What factors can effect the numbers you get for coyotes?
•Do it at the same time at night
•Same phase of the moon-can influence activity
•Weather-wind conditions especially
Why would you use the siren stations rather than sense stations to count coyotes?
they'd have to walk along the road for sense stations and their tracks look like dogs
What are couple count techniques for medium sized animals?
pit-fall stations and live traps
How can you count elk/deer?
• Aerial surveys
• Spotlight surveys
• Pellet counts
When capturing and handling animals what do you need?
• Have to have an animal welfare protocol
• Need permits from state agency and federal agency
What is another name for a funnel trap? what are some details about funnel trap?
confusion entrance trap, Make out of hardware cloth, chicken wire, wood.Effective trap because it is a multiple-capture trap.
What are aerial surveys?
a type of transect survey
What do you do roadside surveys for?
deer, spotlight survey, background noises can interfere though
What are the limitations for road side surveys?
Only can see so far
Road is a habitat and impacts the adjoining habitats-only put in certain areas- only put uplands for ridges, and very seldomly put in bottomlands-don’t want the road becoming flooded and washing out- roads can work as attractants and repellants
What kind of surveys are done for birds?
point counts, background noises also interferes
What are the details of a sense station?
type of transect survey, transect a basis for putting out sub plots- a meter in diameter. Put an attractant in it-set up the soil so it can record the tracks readily- don’t count the number of tracks just number of species. Base put on the number of stations and number of nights vs. number of species in it- be sure to understand how to calculate.
What are the details of a vocalization survey?
use a siren- has to get out to coyote- they have to hear it…then they call back and then it becomes part of the count . plotless survey because you don’t know how far away they are.
What are the details of live traps or pitfalls to survey animals?
- each case you are setting up some type of sampling grid- and setting up some type of sampling station in grids- either pitfalls- how far they grids are apart, either can do intensive or extensive
What is an extensive survey and what is an intensive survey?
extensive sample- spreading locations out of large area and not taking as much time and effort on each one- regardless of species- you typically get the more common species-gonna get the more mobile species.
Intensive species- gonna start detecting the rare species and the less mobile one- especially true with herpetofauna because they are much more restrictive in their habitat and mobility
What kind of attractant food works great?
peanut butter melted on a cotton ball
What are the requirements for catching a species at night?
going to have to more than one species at a station- use some type of capture technique and remove the more dominant species until the less dominant species can be caught. Usually it takes 7-8 days to capture those species.
What are the requirements for setting up pitfalls?
frequency of checking is the single most important thing. Protect against exposure, have water for hot and extra food for cold. It also increases times to check trap, if its hot then leave board above trap. Use a drift fence for pitfalls. Location for drift fence is perpendicular for the direction of travel. Misnaps- need to know how the species Is moving and traveling.
What are misnaps?
need to know how the species is moving and traveling
Most importantly for any surveying what should you know?
how to estimate costs and personal time
For a spotlight survey how long apart should the survey be along hte transect (road)?
every 1/10 mile
For a scent station wide should each circle be and how many scent stations is a moderate density?
1 meter, 4 scent stations
When should scent stations be set? and what are some limitations for them?
age differences, attraction of the scent for different animals, rain destroys tracks, should be set at night and checked in the morning
How do you calculate population density for a scent station?
total number of stations visited by a species/total # of station nights (x number of stations)
do for individual species
Describe an area search.
3-10 ha, move around an area, identifying birds, morning best time, spread through breeding season , mimics recreational birding
What is spot mapping?
breeding bird census, for species of concern, plot where bird is seen, bird moves along edges
How often should nets be checked? what kind are their?
45 minutes, trammel lines and shelf strings, birds that are carrying stuff in their mouths hint they are going to their nests, crows are the smartest birds
Using a belt transect sampling what is the formula?
n/2Lw
What are the requirements for calculating point count census?
number of points, time spent at each point, travel time between points, number of replicants, days required to conduct complete sample, time available to conduct survey-down days, number of people required
break down a nesting sampling hierarchy...
region-1,000 ha
--extensive point count
2. monitoring station- 50 ha x 6 nested
a. intensive point count-9-16 points per monitoring station
b. mist-netting-8-12 nets located on key flyways
c. nest searches- 8 plots recommended per major habitat, on plot of about 50 ha (monitoring station)
d. area searches- conducted over areas of about 3-10 ha
e. spot mapping- 10-15 ha each
What should the height of a drift net be?, how long and what can it be made of?
10 inches to 2 feet, length depends on objective, landscaping cloth, plastic sheeting, wire mesh, natural objects such as downed logs
Where should pitfalls be placed? and drift fences?
each end and sides of drift fence, drift fences should be perpendicular to travel lanes, greatest amount of movement of animal
What kind of drift fences should be used for shrews?
small trenches 1-2 inches wide and deep, they usually hunt small mammals runs and tunnels; substitute, should be dampened and bait placed every so often along trenches and pitfalls
In what weather are species most active?
just after rain
In the air west when should desert habitats be sampled and when should forested habitats be sampled?
desert habitats- in spring (april and May), early summer for forested habitats- may and june
For desert snakes at what duration should be trapped? and why?
at least 30 days; attributed tot the infrequent erratic rainfall characteristicof these arid areas
What is the Fur Resources Project?
uses a scent station technique to measure abundance of various terrestrial furbearers, most useful for populations of red fox, gray fox, raccoons, bobcats and free ranging dogs
What did the scentstation survey use?
an attractant and tracking medium in an area 1 meter cleared of vegetation and loose debris and raked smooth
What was the attractant used int he Fur resources project?
agricultural lime
The attractant of peanut will increase the visitation of what animals at a scent stations?
birds, squirrels and other rodents