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43 Cards in this Set

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How did fossil fuels form?
they formed hundreds of millions of years ago from the remains of dead plants and animals
What are the three main fossil fuels?
coal, oil, and natural gas
What are hydrocarbons?
substances that contain the elements hydrogen and carbon
What is combustion?
the burning of fossil fuels at high temperatures. Heat and light energy are released
Name the four types/stages of coal in order
peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite
Tell me about peat
soft. gives off lots of smoke but not much heat
Tell me about lignite
called brown coal. has a woody texture
Tell me about bituminous coal
dark brown or black. also called soft coal. the most abudant kind
anthracite
hard coal. it is brittle. it is almost pure carbon
Liquid fossil fuel is called....
oil or petroleum
Why are natural gas deposits usually located above oil deposits?
becuase natural gas is less dense
Where did fossil fuels form?
where there used to be water
Fossil fuels are the main source of energy for:
industry, transportation, and homes
What are Petrochemicals?
useful substances that come from oil and natural gas. They make plastics and medicines.
Energy from the sun is called
solar energy
Where do plants get their energy?
from the sun
What are examples of passive solar heating?
windows that get sunlight, window shades. passive solar heating absorbs the sunlight
What is active solar heating?
heating that collect the sun's energy in a solar collector
What are photovoltaic cells
solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity
Give the history of wind energy
see pages 24-25
Are wind an water direct or indirect forms of solar energy?
indirect
What is hydroelectric power?
using running water to make electricity
explain how hydroelectric power works
the water spins a turbine...the turbine turns electromagnets...the electromagnets produce electricity
what is the nucleus?
the tiny center of the atom
what is nuclear energy?
energy that comes from splitting the atom
what is nuclar fisson?
the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller nuclei (and energy is released when that happens)
What is a chain reaction?
when the splitting of one nucleus cuases the splitting of another one
what are some of the concerns about nuclear power?
nuclear meltdown...what to do with the wastes...what if terroists get it....and they are expensive
what is nuclear fusion?
the combining of two atomic nuclei to produce one larger nucleus (and produces energy)
what produces more energy? nuclear fusion or nuclar fission
nuclar fusion
why would nuclear fusion solve all of our energy needs....and why aren't we doing it?
it would solve our problems because it would only use the hydrogen from water...but we aren't doing it beucase we can't control the fusion reaction
how much energy comes from alternative sources?
10%
Name four alternate sources of energy
geothermal, tidal, biomass, and hydrogen power
what is geothermal energy?
energy produced from the heat within the earth
Geysers and hot spots are examples of
geotehermal energy
What is one disadvantage of geothermal energy?
you have to be near a hot spot...and not very many places are
What is biomass and what can you do with it?
materials that come from living things. Biomass can be burned directly as a fuel or converted into other fuels
Give an example of direct burning of biomass
burning firewood
What is gasohol
a mixture of gas and alcohol. Ethanol is the most commonly used gasohol
What has hydrogen been called?
the fuel of the future
What is the problem with hydrogen power?
It takes more energy to break down the water to get the hydrogen then the hydrogen makes
What is tidal energy?
energy from waves
Why is the use of tidal power as an energy source limited?
there aren't many places where you can build tidal power plants