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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

In the context of saliva, serous refers to ___ liquid and mucous refers to ___ liquid

watery, thick

In a day we produce ___ of saliva


What are the 6 functions of saliva?

Taste, Digestion, Cleansing Action, Lubrication, Swallowing, Protection


connects the mouth and nasal passage way

What structure allows us taste?

Papilae on the top of tongue are stimulated only when in solution; To taste substances, they must be in solution

____ digestion starts in the mouth

Sugar/ Carbohydrate

___ ____ is capable of breaking down double sugars, complex sugars and starches into simple sugars

Salivary amylase

3 types of sugars that are absorbed in the small intestine

Simple sugars, Double sugars i.e. sucrose (table sugar = glucose + fructose bonded together), Complex sugar or starch (many simple sugars bonded together)

____ is a type of mucous in saliva that lubricates food making it easier to swallow; as well as it helps form the bolus.


Describe the Case Study GI Tract Dilemma

Nicole, (32, 5'6, 10-20lbs over ideal weight) went to gastroenterologist to complain about heart burn, belching, stomach paid, nausea and weight loss.

Describe Nicole's lifestyle

She smoked 1/2 pack of cigarettes a day, drank 2-4 alcoholic drinks per week, followed a moderately healthy diet, and exercised occasionally

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

camera is placed down the throat and into the stomach to take pictures of the area from the esophagus to the duodenum (where stomach and small intestine meet)

Barium swallow (upper gastrointestinal series)

patient swallow barium (liquid chemical) which lines the digestive tract with a chalky coating. Barium is illuminated on X-rays

Purpose of digestion

hydrolyze (break down using water) macromolecules that can't cross the plasma membrane into subunit molecules (amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acid and glycerol)

What is the difference between ingestion and digestion?

Ingestion occurs when the mouth takes in food, digestion involves the breakdown of larger pieces of food into smaller pieces that can be acted on by digestive enzymes

Accessory Organs

Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

Digestive Tract Organs

Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus

Salivary Glands

secrete saliva which contains digestive enzyme for carbohydrates


largest organ inside the body, processes and store nutrients, produces bile for emulsification of fats


stores bile from liver, sends it to the small intestine.

Some properties of saliva include... (2pts)

Substances in saliva act as a buffer which neutralize both acids and bases, Saliva has a bactericidal effect on many organism

The wave-like movement that propels food and digestive juices along the digestive tract is called ___, it is caused by the contraction of ___

Peristalsis, smooth & circular muscles

The sphincters (circular muscles) found along the digestive tract controlthe ___ and ____

direction, rate of movement of products through the tract

The esophagus is ___ in length, food takes ___s to travel across it, and it has no ____

25cm in length, 10s, No digestive function

What structure allows food boluses to pass through it?

Food boluses pass through the gastroesophageal sphincter at the end of the esophagus

What is the role of the gastroesophageal sphincter?

Prevent regurgitation of stomach contents back into the esophagus.

Persistent heartburn is an indication of ___ ___. Frequentacid reflux can lead to ____ ___which may cause___ ___

Acid reflux, Barretts syndrome, Esophageal cancer

Which organ is J-shaped with a thick wall?

the stomach

What are the functions of the stomach?

storage, mixing, digestion and emptying.

List the four regions of the stomach?

cardiac region, fundus (above the cardiac region), body and pylorus.

Thestomach is lined with ___ made up of deep folds called ___ and millions of ___.

mucosa, rugae, gastric pits

With a storage capacity of ___L, the stomach empties in__ hours after eating

1L, 2-6 hours

Where do contractions become stronger in the stomach?

At the bottom of the stomach, as food gets closer to the pyloric region.

Protein digestion starts in ___

the stomach

The mixture of pepsin, HCl, mucus and food that is found at the pyloric spinster before entering the small intestines is called?


Stomachacid or hydrochloric (HCl) acid has a pH of __


What are the components of gastric juices?

pepsinogen(produced by specialized gastric glands), hydrochloric acid and mucus

Which enzyme breaks down protein?


What is the range of pH required for enzymes to function properly in the stomach?

pH 2-5

Although absorption is not the primary function of the stomach, which substances can be absorbed?

alcohol,aspirin, some lipid soluble drugs

Thesmall intestine is __ iin life and ___ after death

3 m (10 ft.); 6 m (20 ft.)

Describe the 3 structures within the small intestine that aid in absorption.

1)plicae circulares—circular or transverse foldsin the mucosa 2) villi—fingerlike projections and 3)microvillior brush border

The surface area in the small intestine is increased ___ by plicae circulare, ___ by villi and ___ by microvili

3x, 10x, 20x

The total absorptive area of the small intestine is ___ equivalent to the size of ___

250m^2, tennis court

List the 3 regions of the small intestine and identify which one is the longest section.

duodenum, jejunumand ileum (longest section).

The duodenum receives digestive enzymes from the ___ and bile from the ____.

pancreas, liver

What are the brunner's glands and what is their purpose?

Located predominantly in the proximal duodenum. They secrete large quantities of alkalinemucus that protects the duodenal lining from the acidic chyme/gastric juicesfrom the stomach.

Bile is important for the digestion of __ but it is not a digestive enzyme.


Pancreas and liver are NOT part of the ____, but they are a part of the ___

digestive tract, digestive system

Describe the Crypts of Lieberkühn (intestinal glands).

Tubular glands/pits located at the base of the villi along thesurface of the small intestine that produce 3L of of neutral (pH 6.5 –7.5) extracellular fluid/day.

What is the function of the Goblet cells?

protect and lubricate the rest of the small intestine

What serves as the watery vehicle for the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine?

the neutral extracellular fluid produced by the Crypts of Lieberkühn which are rapidly reabsorbed by the villi.

Where are fat and lipid molecules absorbed?

The lymphatic system, specifically the lacteal (a long tube rightthrough the middle of the capillaries).

The ____ is a soft, glandular organ about 2.5cm wide and 12 – 15 cm long. It islocated below the stomach and adjacent to the duodenum.

The pancreas

The pancreas is both an ___ gland that secretes insulin through the islet of Langerhans into the blood and an ___ gland because it releases pancreatic juices through a pancreatic duct to the duodenum.

endocrine, exocrine

Bile is a solution consisting of water, bilesalts, bile pigments, lipids and electrolytes. Bile is necessary for the digestion of___, however, bile is not a ___ ___.

fats, a digestive enzyme

Exocrine vs Endocrine glands

Exocrine gland—any gland that secretes its product into a duct leading directly to the target organ.Endocrine gland—any gland that releases itssecretions into the blood which carries the secretion to the target organ.

Microvilli are found only on the side where there are ____ and serve the secondary function of acting as a ____.

Villi, sensor

The ___ is the largest organ within the body, it weighs about ___ and it is located below the diaphragm, right above the intestines.

Liver 1.4kg (3lbs)

What is the function of the liver with respects to metabolism?

Production of bile

Where is bile stored?

In the gallbladder which is located at the bottom or ventral side of the liver.

Bile acts as a ____ (something that is able to break up fat into small droplets).


How does agitation of fat globules by thesmall intestine allow the digestive enzymes to act on them

bile salts and other chemicals emulsifies the fat globules into droplets in order that fat digestive enzymes can act on them

Bile salts are ___ ____ with one end soluble in water (polar end) and the other end soluble in fat (nonpolar end).

steroid molecules

___ of bile salts are reabsorbed in the small intestine some of these molecules are recirculate or reused up to___ a day

95%, 5x

Bile pigments

Biliverdin and bilirubin which are break down products of hemoglobin from warn out blood cells (erythrocytes).


yellowingof skin and whites of eyes, occurs when there is an accumulation ofbilirubin in the extracellular fluids ofthe body

3 Causes of Jaundice are:

Excessive destruction of erythrocytes (common in babies), Damage to the liver (excessive alcohol), Obstruction to the bile ducts

Lipids include __, __, and __,

cholesterol,fatty acids, phospholipid (lecithin)

Lecithin aids in the ___ ___ ___ along withbile salts, it keeps cholesterol in solution and prevents it from depositing inthe gallbladder as gall stones.

emulsification of fats,

We absorb ___ of gastrointestinal fluids (includes 1L of saliva) in the smallintestine.

7.5 L

Absorption in the small intestines occurs through

Simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Active transport (requires energy)

With regards to the large intestine, the __ hangs down from the cecum and the ___is the largest part of the large intestine

appendix, colon

The large intestine joins the small intestine at the cecum and colon by the ileocecal valve. The large intestine is about __ in length and is composed of five major regions:

1.5 m, cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal and anus

The appendix is considered to be a ___ organ and a ___ organ. It acts as a reservoir of healthy, protective bacteria that can replenish theintestine after a bacteria-depleting bout of diarrhea.

lymphatic, digestive

What are the 2 functionsof the colon (in the proximal and distal half)?

1) in the proximal half: absorption of water, electrolytes and some vitamins from chyme 2) distal half: storage of fecal material until expulsion

Haustral or churning contractions

the mixing, rolling and passing of chyme/fecal-material forwardpromoting absorption

___ ___ propels fecal contents towards the anus. This occurs once to a few times per day where ~20 cm or more of the lower half of the large intestine contracts as a unit to allow for the material to be voided.

Mass movement

Of the450ml of chyme that enter the cecum daily, about __ml are eliminated bydefecation


Secretions within the colon include:

mucus from goblet cells and crypts of Lieberkühn; epithelial cells secrete bicarbonate to neutralize acids produced by bacteria. No enzymes are secreted.

Once the ileocecal sphincter is stimulated following a meal, it empties ___ of chyme into the cecum with each peristaltic contraction, for a total of __ per day.

4ml, 450ml

What is the purpose of the ileocecal sphincter?

prolongs the amount of chyme in the small intestines which helps with the absorption of the most nutrients possible

Someeating disorders result from ___ ___, others from socialand cognitive influences may impede with the normal physiological mechanisms

physiological abnormalities

List the 3 categories of obesity and the percentage values above the standard

Mildobesity is considered 20-40%,Moderateobesity is consider 41- 100%, Severeobeisity is over 100%

Emotionalstress is not a cause of ___but it can produce temporary fluaction ofeating habits and body weight in almost anyone


What are some factors that can affect obesity?

Highinsulin levels, genetic, lack of exercise, cultural influences

Manyanorexics prize ____ and describe themselves as "___ ___" or "__ ___ __ __"

self-control, looking fat, needing to lose weight

Ofthe anorexic individuals that consult a physician, about ____% die of starvation or othercomplications of severe weight loss


Anorexia nervosa usually starts in the ___ and may continue in the 20's; however it is now recognized as a problem in older adults. It is __ more common in women than man.


People with bulimia alternate between ___ and ___. They can consume up to ___ food calories at a time.

self-starvation and excessive eating, 20, 000

How does the National Eating Disorder Association define Drunkorexia?

replacingfood consumption with excessive alcohol and/or using alcohol to induce vomitingas a method of purging and numbing feelings

CWAC diet

coffee, water, alcohol, and cigarettes

Drunkorexia is commonly triggered by __ __ and __ __ __. __ are typically more affected than __

academic stressors, decreased parental supervision, women, men

What is Hepatitis?

Inflammation of the liver, viral hepatitis can be A- acquired from sewage-contaminated drinking water or food, B- spread through sexual contact or contaminated needles, C- acquired from infected blood

___ __ virus is more contagious than the AID virus, spread in the same way

Hepatitis B

There are vaccines for Hepatitis __, __ but not ___


What is Cirrhosis?

Chronic disease of the liver where the organ becomes fatty than liver tissue is replaced by inactive fibrous scar tissue

What is diarrhea?

loose or watery bowel movements caused by infection of lower intestinal tract and nervous stimulation (an attempt to rid the body of infectious organism, water is not reabsorbed)

Describe constipation.

dry and hard faces that is difficult to expel, caused by lack of whole-grain foods, ignoring to defecate


enlarged and inflamed blood vessels at the anus


occurrence of little pouches of mucosa where food can collect

Irritable Bowel Syndrome vs Inflammatory Bowel Disorder

IBS (spastic colon) is a condition where the muscular is contracts powerfully without normal coordination; IBD includes ulcerative colitis and chrohn's disease

Ulcerative colitis

affects the large intestine and rectum resulting in diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps and urgency in defecation

Crohn's disease

affects the small intestine but can affect other digestive tract organs, it is the breakdown of the lining resulting in ulcers


small growths that arise from the epithelial lining and can be removed surgically

Pritikin Diet

encourages the consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates and finer in the form of whole grains and vegetables; but it is too low in fats

Atkins Diet

low-carb diet, eat more protein and fat; but it poses serious threat to homeostasis (breakdown of protein lowers blood pH, excess nitrogen from protein breakdown in kidneys)

Zone Diet and South Beach Diet

recommend only healthy fats and permit low -sugar carbs

Caveman, or Paleo Diet

mimics the diet of humans prior to agricultural pursuits, lots of meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables

Define obesity

body mass index of 30 or greater

BMI is calculated...

weight(lbs)/height (in.)^2 x 703

Healthy BMI


Overweight BMI


Obese BMI


Mobidly Obese

40 +

Of the ___ different amino acids, __ are essential

20, 8

Vegetarians are counselled to eat __, ___ _ , and other foods made from ___ to get a complete source of protein

tofu, soy milk, soybeans

Binge eating disorder

episodes of overeating without purging, can be triggered by stress, anxiety, anger and depression.

Muscle dysmorphia

a person thinks his/her body is underdevelopped so he spends hours at the gym and preoccupied with body building and diet. affects more men than women

Nicole's test results indicated that she had

GERD gastroesophageal reflux diseases (where food/liquid travel backwards up the esophagus from the stomach), duodenal ulcer and high levels of H. pylori (known to cause heartburn, reflux and ulcers)

Saturated fats which are solids at room temperature usually have an animal origin except ___ __ and __ __

palm oil and coconut oil

Oils contain __ __ __ which do not promote cardiovascular disease

unsaturated fatty acids

__ __ are the only oils that contain linoleic acid and linolenic acid (2 acids that the body cannot make)

Polyunsaturated oils

The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased by diets high in __ and __

saturated fats which contribute to atherosclerosis (lesions) and cholesterol

Minerals are divided into major (need quantities greater than ___ per day) and trace (need levels less than ___ per day)

major (100mg), trace 100mg