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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Formation of African American culture
1. Adaptation of groups to each other.
2. Adaptation of culture to new environment
3. interaction with other groups in North America
Ancient Egypt
- Nubian Pharaohs
-"Black Africa"
Great Zimbabwe
-Southeast Africa
- 1300-1450 AD
-large enclosures, walls around huts called "Dhake Huts"
-Monolithic stones
- 1000-18000 people
-Trade with Iran and China
Number of people brought during slave trade
10-12 million (men, women,children)
1/2 million to North America
Dutch in Jamestown
- 20 indentured Africans servants to Jamestown temporary
-Restrictions gradually places on indentured servants by
1. lengthened terms of service
2. extended conditions to offspring
Quakers and slavery
- in Pennsylvania
- Forbid slaves, prevented by British government
Slaves in colonies before American Revolution
-1641: Massachusetts, First to legalize slavery
-1653: Maryland, all imported persons were slaves
-1670: Virginia, denied right to vote and all imported persons were permanent slaves
People from which region of Africa were skilled rice cultivators and brought to the Carolinas to grow rice? What cultures developed there as a result of this?
-Sierra Leone
-Gullah and Geechee Cultures
- Krio of Sierra Leone
- creole was formed language
- pidgin was that they would pick and choose words to create an in between language
Nat Turner Revolt
-Rebellion in 1831 in Southampton Country, Virginia
-killed 60 white
-Turner was hanged
Other Revolts
-1712 in New York City 21 slaves and 9 white people were killed
-1739 in South Carolina killed 81 white people
-1800 in Richmond, VA by Gabriel Prosser. he was captured and hanged. White people started to get worried.
-1822 in Charleston, SC by Denmark Vessey formed a conspiracy which allowed slaves from differetn farms to together.
Urban slaves
-ship workers
-wood workers
-blacks from the US
-to different to coexists
-leave America
-protects rights of blacks in the south
-military would come in and help them get free
Great Migration
-blacks moved out of the south and into the north because of higher wages and better jobs
-changed countrys demographics
-led to some southern reforms like better schools
Labor Recruiters
-convince the blacks to move to the north
-political protest
-employment, assistance, and debt forgiveness
A. Phillip Randolph
- In WWII on July 1, 1941 he led the "March to Washington"
-continued suits in court
-1954 "Brown vs.Education of Topeka,Kansas"
-separate is NOT equal
-not suppported by the southerns of President Eisenhower
-wanted to end segregation and the approach was legal approach
Black Codes
-control free population
-military occupation of south
Bus Boycott
-womens political council
-integration of Montgomery
-On December 5,1955
-blacks were 3/4 of the bus customers
-lasted for 2 years until the federal court declared segregated seating unconstitutional
Rosa Parks
-On December 1, 1955 she rode the bus and refused to give up her seat to a white person and was arrested. -
-This is what started the Bus Boycott and the Civil Rights Movements
Lunch counter sit-ins
-Some of the black students would take up all of the white students tables at lunch time
-some resulted in getting arrested
Social Dislocation Crisis
- Loss of typical cultural behaviors
-resulted in the increasing of
1.teen pregancies
2.out of wedlock births
3. female head households
4. welfare dependencies
5. serious crime
-loss of middle and working class families
-historical effects of rasism
Modern humans in Africa
-Came about 200,000-100,000 YA
-Middle awash valley, Ethiopia were the oldest modern human remain is found called "Herto Site"
-lack of political power
-inferior education
-limitation on business
-employment competition
WEB Dubois
-believes education is pointless
-Created the NAACP in 1910
-he wanted to take a lead approach to end segregation but it was a slow process
Booker T. Washington
-believed that increasing opportunity through training (believed in education)
-did not push for immediate equality but willing to work for it.
Ku Klux Klan
-elite southerns
-used violence to terrorize former slaves
-Reinstituted from 1915-1944
-"keep blacks in line"
-displaced by depression
Plessy vs. Fergusen
-separated but equal transportation
Williams vs. Mississippi
-literacy test for voters
13th amendment
-1865 abolished slavery
14th amendment
-1868 born or naturalized is a US citizen besides Native Americans
15th amendment
-1870 right to vote besides women
About what percent of modern Americans are considered to be African American today?
Great Zimbabwe reached its peak around what years?
-removed Southeast groups to Oklahoma territory
Which cultural group in central Africa had the most homogenized culture brought to the New World?
Bantu Culture
-West Africans were skilled at farming and cattle herders (AG) making them desirable as slaves
- used stone tools
-adopted into the ecological zone
-Nomadic(meaning move around)
How many men of African descent accompanied Columbus on his initial voyage to the New World, and what were their names?
- Pedro Alonza Nino and Jaun las Canarias
Bartolome de las Casas
responsible for suggesting Africans as slaves for the New World
King Charles V
had Bartolome suggest to him to make Africans slaves
-the oldest European city in the north
-half slaves and half free blacks
-10% of the population
Slavery in US differs from slavery in Caribbean and S. America
-Slavery in the US were on plantations and there were 30 or more
-In the Caribbean is where sugar grew and there were free blacks and slaves
-In the South there were fewer diseases, more sex ratio, and a healthier environment. The slaves were close with their owners
Which colony moved to abolish slavery in the late 1600s, although this was denied by the British government?
Ghost Dance
was a revitalization movement
- In the 1870s
-major cataclysm
-swallow whites
-in the 1890s
-restrictive reservation life
-military defeat
-Extinction of buffalo
-Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
-offer protection to graves
-return human remains, morturary objects, and scared items
- tribes must prove ownership
-individualization of Indian lands
-no more communal ownership
-could sell if wished
-lead to assimilation
-avoid domination by families
In what year was the slave trade made illegal, and about how many illegal slaves were brought to the New World per year?
-5000 a year
Revitalization Movements
-Ask for supernatural assistance
-and their purpose was Naticistic
What popular Myth gave the white population justification to continue slavery?
Myth of the negro past
Which colony made it required by law that children of slaves be literate?
Rhode Island
What is the name of the sea voyage from Africa to the Americas?
-Middle Passsage
Spanish intentions in the New World
-not colonist
-gold,souls to save,land
-northwest passage
-no women or children and intermarriage with natives
-humans but native
-learned native language
-deserving of Christianity
-trade and Encomienda which was a system set up to have natives work their land and paid them
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act
- in 1790
-land issues
-accommodations or extinction
-treaties to establish boundaries
-Indian territory (Oklahoma)
Indian Removal Act
-may 20,1830
-removed SE groups to Oklahoma Territory
Dawes General Allotment Act of 1887
-all tribe lands surveyed and divided among members, sell surplus lands
Indian Homestead Act
-restricted title for land and could not sell for 25 years
American Indian Church
-ingestion of Peyote
-Rio Grande valley and south
-levitation, vision, enhanced perception
-1870 became the Mescalero Apaches
At the beginning of the Civil War, how many slaves were present in the US?
4 1/2 million
Johnson-O’Malley Act
-federal government contracted with states for Indian service in 1934
Columbus’ voyage
-Expedition to the new world in 1492
Women in West African culture
-had mother and child bonding
-ruled as queen mothers
-skilled farmers
-economic life
Urban League
-address social welwafe issues
-poverty and discrimination
-it is a slow progress
Slavery in Spain and Portugal
not racism
-Fair employment practices committee
-created by president roosevelt in 1941
During the economic boom in the US following WWII, the Middle Class rose from _____% to _____%.
Which group was instrumental in organizing the Bus Boycott of 1955?
Women’s Political Council
Vasquez de Allyon
-in modern Georgia
-100 black labors rebelled and joined the natives.
- Africans in North America brought by the Spanish
Civil Rights Act
-passes in 1957
-sets up departments of justice
-prohibited interference with voting
Indians Plains Commission
-in 1946
-indian tribes to sure government for grievance
-land and treaty violation
-800 cases over 10 years
-4 million awarded
In the “Clovis First” model, approximately how many years ago did people first migrate to North America?
What is an atlatl?
Spear thrower
In what year was a boundary drawn between the colonies and Indian Country?
What is meant by “Compensable Indian Title to Land”?
Land must be purchased from natives, not taken
What is the phenomenon of Checkerboarding, and how did it affect natives
Native lands being sold to whites, broke up tribes and families
The American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed in what year?
1978, protected under the 1st amendment