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23 Cards in this Set

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What were the 3 forces that struggled for control of European governments and society?
Conservatives, Liberals, Radicals
Who did the conservatives represent and what type of government did the want?
-wealthy propert owners and nobility
- traditional monarchies of Europe to continue
Who did the liberals represent and what type of government did they want?
-mostly middle class business leadersand merchants
-elected parliament of educated and landownwers
Who did the radicals represent and what type of government did they want?
-all the people
-democracy
Define Nationalism
a movement that advocated that one's greatest loyalty should be to a nation of people who share a common culture and history
Define Nation-State
nation of people who share a common culture and history and has its own independent government
What empires did nationalism break-up?
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Russia
Ottoman Empire
What nations did it unify?
Italy and Germany
Who controlled Italy prior to unification?
Austria and the Spanish
Who is Massini?
-organized a nationalist group of Italiens under 40 yrs. old
-temporarily governed 8 states of Italy but was driven out by old rulers
Who is Cavour?
-drove out the Austrians from Northern Italy with Napoleon's help
Who is Garibaldi?
led the Red Shirts, nationalist rebels in southern Italy to unite northern and southern Italy
What advantages did Prussia have over the other German kingdoms trying to unite the Germans?
-mainly German population
-most powwerful army in Central Europe
-industrialized
What was the Industrial Revolution?
Large increase in machine-made goods
When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Mid 1700's in England
What were the favorable conditions in Britain and U.S. sparked the industrial revolution?
natural resources (rivers, coal, iron ore)
financial systems (banks)
political stability
Large labor force
What were the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution?
-improvements in agriculture, transportation, communications
-changed where people lived - cities grew
- development of the middle class
What were the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution?
-inequality between industrialized west & the rest of the world
-need for social reform to protect working women & children and working conditions in general
-poor remained poor while rich got richer
What are the Factors of Production (what resources are necessary to produce good)?
-land
-labor
-wealth
What were the improvements in transportation?
-Water transportation: steam engine
- railrod: steam driven locomotives
Why were transportation improvements important?
-able to transport goods from factories to ports cheaply
- transport agricultural products to distant cities
-country people could take city jobs
How did the agricultural revolution begin?
1st invention - Jethro Tull's seed drill
-farmers were able to get the most out of their land
-plant seeds in well placed rows
What factors led to the expansion of industry in the U.S. in the 1800's?
Britain's blokade of U.S. douring War of 1812 forced U.S. to use its own resources to develop industries to manufacture goods they could no longer import.